J Cancer 2018; 9(21):4072-4086. doi:10.7150/jca.26399

Research Paper

Cytoplasmic SQSTM1/ P62 Accumulation Predicates a Poor Prognosis in Patients with Malignant Tumor

Linhai Zhu1*, Yiqing Wang1*, Jing He2*, Jie Tang1, Wang Lv1, Jian Hu1✉

1. Department of Thoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003, China.
2. Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan 250355, China.
* Equal Contribution

Abstract

Aims: SQSTM1/p62, as an autophagy marker, is a key molecule involved in the autophagy process. Recent studies have demonstrated that p62 has a close relationship with tumorigenesis and progression, but the impact of p62 on patients' survival has not been comprehensively understood. Therefore, we conducted this study to assess the expression level of p62 in tumor cells and the prognostic role of p62 expression in various malignant tumors.

Methods: We searched PubMed, PubMed Central (PMC), Embase, Ovid and Web of Science databases and identified 30 eligible studies containing 14,072 patients to include in the meta-analysis. The p62 mRNA and protein expression profiles in various tumor tissues and normal tissues were presented according to the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) and the Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA). We also tested the association between p62 mRNA level and patients' survival based on the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) databases.

Results: The expression levels of p62 mRNA and protein varied in different tissues. The p62 proteins were elevated and mainly located in the cytoplasm in some types of tumor compared with the normal tissues. The pooled results indicated that p62 overexpression in tumor tissues was associated with a worse prognosis. In the subgroup analysis, a significant relationship was observed between cytoplasmic p62 accumulation and both overall survival (HR 1.53, 95% CI: 1.03-2.27, P < 0.05) and disease-specific survival (HR 1.60, 95% CI: 1.15-2.24, P < 0.01). The relationship between p62 and worse survival was more evident in early stage tumors. P62 mRNA expression had no significant effect on the patient's survival except of liver cancer.

Conclusions: The findings of this meta-analysis highlight the role of p62 as a useful prognostic biomarker for some types of tumor according to different clinicopathologic features, which may contribute to the selection of effective treatment methods for different malignant tumors.

Keywords: SQSTM1/p62, malignant tumor, prognosis

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/). See http://ivyspring.com/terms for full terms and conditions.
How to cite this article:
Zhu L, Wang Y, He J, Tang J, Lv W, Hu J. Cytoplasmic SQSTM1/ P62 Accumulation Predicates a Poor Prognosis in Patients with Malignant Tumor. J Cancer 2018; 9(21):4072-4086. doi:10.7150/jca.26399. Available from http://www.jcancer.org/v09p4072.htm