J Cancer 2018; 9(23):4382-4390. doi:10.7150/jca.27344

Research Paper

A Nomogram Based on a TRUS Five-Grade Scoring System for the Prediction of Prostate Cancer and High Grade Prostate Cancer at Initial TRUS-Guided Biopsy

Shao Wei Xie1*, Yan Qing Wang2*, Bai Jun Dong2, Jian Guo Xia1, Hong Li Li1, Shi Jun Zhang1, Feng Hua Li1✉, Wei Xue2✉

1. Department of Ultrasound, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China;
2. Department of Urology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.
*The first two authors contributed equally to the manuscript.

Abstract

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of transrectal ultrasound five-grade scoring system (TRUS-5) in predicting prostate cancer (PCa) and high grade PCa (HGPCa), compared with TRUS two-grade scoring system (TRUS-2), and establish a TRUS-5 based nomogram for the prediction of PCa and HGPCa at initial biopsy (IPBx).

Methods: Data were collected from 862 men who underwent initial TRUS-guided 12-core prostate biopsy. Age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), percent free PSA, digital rectal examination (DRE), prostate volume (PV), PSA density (PSAD) and TRUS findings were included in the analysis. For TRUS-5, the probability of PCa was quantified on a scale from 1 (benign) to 5 (malignant). TRUS-2 used the grades “normal” and “suspicious”. After univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, nomogram models were developed and internally validated based on independent predictors to predict the probability of PCa and HGPCa.

Results: Overall PCa was detected in 42% (362/862) with 26.22% (226/862) showing HGPCa. TRUS-5 significantly outperformed TRUS-2 for the risk prediction of PCa and HGPCa (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC]: 0.787 vs. 0.694 for PCa, 0.841 vs. 0.713 for HGPCa, P<0.05). The TRUS-5 based nomogram showed higher AUCs (0.905 for PCa, 0.903 for HGPCa) than PSA alone, clinical base model, the TRUS-2 based model, and other predictive models (P<0.05).

Conclusions: TRUS-5 represents a better imaging predictor than TRUS-2 for PCa and HGPCa. Our TRUS-5 based nomogram models performed well for the prediction of PCa and HGPCa at IPBx, which may help to make the decision to biopsy.

Keywords: prostate cancer, biopsy, ultraonography, nomograms

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How to cite this article:
Xie SW, Wang YQ, Dong BJ, Xia JG, Li HL, Zhang SJ, Li FH, Xue W. A Nomogram Based on a TRUS Five-Grade Scoring System for the Prediction of Prostate Cancer and High Grade Prostate Cancer at Initial TRUS-Guided Biopsy. J Cancer 2018; 9(23):4382-4390. doi:10.7150/jca.27344. Available from http://www.jcancer.org/v09p4382.htm