J Cancer 2017; 8(13):2554-2560. doi:10.7150/jca.20031 This issue

Research Paper

A Multi-Center Prospective Study to Validate an Algorithm Using Urine and Plasma Biomarkers for Predicting Gleason ≥3+4 Prostate Cancer on Biopsy

Maher Albitar1✉, Wanlong Ma1, Lars Lund2, Babak Shahbaba3, Edward Uchio3, Soren Feddersen2, Donald Moylan4, Kirk Wojno4, Neal Shore5

1. NeoGenomics Laboratories, Irvine, CA;
2. Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark;
3. University of California, Irvine, CA;
4. Comprehensive Urology, Royal Oak, MI;
5. Carolina Urologic Research Center, Myrtle Beach, SC.

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Albitar M, Ma W, Lund L, Shahbaba B, Uchio E, Feddersen S, Moylan D, Wojno K, Shore N. A Multi-Center Prospective Study to Validate an Algorithm Using Urine and Plasma Biomarkers for Predicting Gleason ≥3+4 Prostate Cancer on Biopsy. J Cancer 2017; 8(13):2554-2560. doi:10.7150/jca.20031. Available from https://www.jcancer.org/v08p2554.htm

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Background: Unnecessary biopsies and overdiagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) remain a serious healthcare problem. We have previously shown that urine- and plasma-based prostate-specific biomarkers when combined can predict high grade prostate cancer (PCa). To further validate this test, we performed a prospective multicenter study recruiting patients from community-based practices.

Patients and Methods: Urine and plasma samples from 2528 men were tested prospectively. Results were correlated with biopsy findings, if a biopsy was performed as deemed necessary by the practicing urologist. Of the 2528 patients, biopsy was performed on only 524 (21%) patients.

Results: Of the 524 patients, Gleason≥3+4 PCa was found in 161 (31%) and Gleason ≥4+3 was found in 62 (12%) of the patients.

The urine/plasma biomarkers algorithm showed sensitivity and specificity of 75% and 69% for predicting Gleason ≥3+4. However, upon incorporating prostate size and prior history of biopsy in the algorithm, we achieved a sensitivity between 97% and 86% and a specificity between 36% and 57%, dependent on the used cut-off point. Sensitivity for predicting PCa Gleason ≥4+3 was between 96% and 99% and specificity between 59% and 37%, dependent on the cut-off point. Diagnosis of Gleason ≥3+4 was missed in 1% to 3% of tested patients and of Gleason ≥4+3 in 0.2% to 1%.

Conclusion: This test when integrated with prostate volume and the prior prostate biopsy enhance the sensitivity and specificity for predicting the presence of high grade prostate cancer with negative predictive value (NPV) of 90% to 97% for Gleason ≥3+4 and between 98% to 99% for Gleason ≥4+3.

Keywords: prostate cancer, high grade, prediction, biomarkers, urine, plasma, biopsy, Gleason.