J Cancer 2010; 1:6-13. doi:10.7150/jca.1.6

Research Paper

Breast cancer heterogeneity: mechanisms, proofs, and implications

Yi-Hsuan Hsiao1,2, Ming-Chih Chou1, Carol Fowler3, Jeffrey T. Mason3, Yan-gao Man3,4

1. Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taiwan
2. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Changhua Christian Hospital, Taiwan
3. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology and American Registry of Pathology, Washington DC, USA
4. Jilin University, China


Human breast cancer represents a group of highly heterogeneous lesions consisting of about 20 morphologically distinct subtypes with substantially different molecular and/or biochemical signatures, clinical courses, and prognoses. This study analyzed the possible correlation between the morphological presentations of breast cancer and two hypothesized models of carcinogenesis, in order to identify the intrinsic mechanism(s) and clinical implications of breast cancer heterogeneity.

Keywords: breast cancer heterogeneity, mechanism, hypothesized model, clinical implication

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How to cite this article:
Hsiao YH, Chou MC, Fowler C, Mason JT, Man Yg. Breast cancer heterogeneity: mechanisms, proofs, and implications. J Cancer 2010; 1:6-13. doi:10.7150/jca.1.6. Available from http://www.jcancer.org/v01p0006.htm