J Cancer 2016; 7(2):200-206. doi:10.7150/jca.13873

Review

What Is the Appropriate Clinical Target Volume for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma? Debate and Consensus Based on Pathological and Clinical Outcomes

Dali Han1,3, Yinping Yuan2,3, Xuqing Song4, Yonghua Yu1,3, Jinming Yu1,3,✉

1. Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong University Affiliated Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Jinan, Shandong Province, China.
2. Department of Pathology, Shandong University Affiliated Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Jinan, Shandong Province, China.
3. Shandong Province Key Laboratory of Radiation Oncology, Jinan, Shandong Province, China.
4. Department of Radiation Oncology, Jining Cancer Hospital, Jining, Shandong Province, China

Abstract

Accurate delineation of clinical target volume (CTV) is critical in the effective management of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of esophagus using radiation therapy. Accurate delineation may improve the probability of local control and reduce the risk of complications. However, there are no consistent standards on the proper size of the margins added to the gross tumor volume (GTV). Different institutions and radiation oncologists have discordant opinions. In this paper, we review pathological and clinical outcomes to determine the most appropriate CTV for squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of esophagus. The CTV for esophageal carcinoma should ensure that all subclinical lesions are encompassed regardless of the physical distance. The most precise method for delineating a reasonable CTV is to combine advanced imaging techniques, such as PET/CT and EUS, which allows the detection and prediction of subclinical lesions based on tumor characteristics such as the pathological type, differentiation, T disease, length and lymph node status.

Keywords: esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, radiation therapy, clinical target volume

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How to cite this article:
Han D, Yuan Y, Song X, Yu Y, Yu J. What Is the Appropriate Clinical Target Volume for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma? Debate and Consensus Based on Pathological and Clinical Outcomes. J Cancer 2016; 7(2):200-206. doi:10.7150/jca.13873. Available from http://www.jcancer.org/v07p0200.htm