J Cancer 2018; 9(19):3500-3506. doi:10.7150/jca.26157

Research Paper

Efficacy of surgery and prophylactic cranial irradiation in stage II and III small cell lung cancer

Kunpeng Yin1*, Dandan Song1*, Hongwei Zhang1, Feng Cai1, Jun Chen2, Jun Dang1✉

1. Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China
2. Department of Radiation Oncology, Shenyang Chest Hospital, Shenyang, China
* Kunpeng Yin and Dandan Song contributed equally to this work.

Abstract

Background: The role of surgery for stage II and III small cell lung cancer (SCLC) remains controversial. The use of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) for resected SCLC was limited. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of surgery in patients with stage II and III SCLC, and evaluate the value of PCI on resected disease.

Methods: A total of 269 consecutive patients with stage II-IIIA SCLC were retrospectively reviewed from January 2010 to December 2015. Of these, 116 patients received surgical resection, and 153 underwent non-surgical treatment. Resected patients were matched 1:1 with non-surgical patients (n=70 in each group).

Results: The median follow-up was 30 months. The 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival (OS) for matched patients were 80.0%, 44.3% and 31.7% in surgical group, and 80.0%, 24.3% and 20.0% in non-surgical group (P=0.009), respectively. Multivariate analysis in matched patients showed that surgery (HR=0.603, 95%CI: 0.404-0.900) and PCI (HR=0.637, 95%CI: 0.427-0.950) were independent prognostic factors for OS. In subgroup analysis, OS benefit related to surgery was marginal for stage II (P=0.09) and IIIA patients (P=0.061), but was significant for selected stage IIIA patients who received adjuvant chemo-radiation and PCI (P=0.01). PCI was associated with improved OS for non-surgical patients (P=0.036), and stage IIIA of surgical patients (P=0.047).

Conclusions: These findings suggest a potential OS benefit of surgery in stages II and IIIA patients, particularly in selected stage IIIA patients who received adjuvant chemo-radiation and PCI. The use of PCI for surgical patients with stage IIIA was associated with improved OS.

Keywords: Small cell lung cancer, Surgical resection, Chemotherapy, Radiotherapy, Prophylactic cranial irradiation

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How to cite this article:
Yin K, Song D, Zhang H, Cai F, Chen J, Dang J. Efficacy of surgery and prophylactic cranial irradiation in stage II and III small cell lung cancer. J Cancer 2018; 9(19):3500-3506. doi:10.7150/jca.26157. Available from http://www.jcancer.org/v09p3500.htm