J Cancer 2019; 10(3):643-653. doi:10.7150/jca.28542

Review

Advances in Identification of Susceptibility Gene Defects of Hereditary Colorectal Cancer

Qiang Liu1,2,3, Yue-Qiu Tan2,3✉

1. Hunan Key Laboratory of Translational Radiation Oncology, Hunan cancer Hospital and The Affiliated Cancer of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, China
2. Institute of Reproductive and Stem Cell Engineering, School of Basic Medical Science, Central South University, Changsha, China
3. Reproductive and Genetic Hospital of CITIC-Xiangya, Changsha, China

Abstract

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignant tumor of the digestive system worldwide, associated with hereditary genetic features. CRC with a Mendelian genetic predisposition accounts for approximately 5-10% of total CRC cases, mainly caused by a single germline mutation of a CRC susceptibility gene. The main subtypes of hereditary CRC are hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). With the rapid development of genetic testing methods, especially next-generation sequencing technology, multiple genes have now been confirmed to be pathogenic, including DNA repair or DNA mismatch repair genes such as APC, MLH1, and MSH2. Since familial CRC patients have poor clinical outcomes, timely clinical diagnosis and mutation screening of susceptibility genes will aid clinicians in establishing appropriate risk assessment and treatment interventions at a personal level. Here, we systematically summarize the susceptibility genes identified to date and the potential pathogenic mechanism of HNPCC and FAP development. Moreover, clinical recommendations for susceptibility gene screening, diagnosis, and treatment of HNPCC and FAP are discussed.

Keywords: hereditary colorectal cancer, hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), susceptibility genes

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How to cite this article:
Liu Q, Tan YQ. Advances in Identification of Susceptibility Gene Defects of Hereditary Colorectal Cancer. J Cancer 2019; 10(3):643-653. doi:10.7150/jca.28542. Available from http://www.jcancer.org/v10p0643.htm