J Cancer 2019; 10(20):4852-4859. doi:10.7150/jca.31357

Research Paper

Identification of High Serum Apolipoprotein A1 as a Favorable Prognostic Indicator in Patients with Multiple Myeloma

Lifan Liang1, Jing Li1, Hangcheng Fu2, Xinyang Liu1, Peng Liu1,✉

1. Department of Hematology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
2. Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China

Abstract

This study is to explore the prognostic significance of serum lipid profiles in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). The study retrospectively enrolled 307 MM patients in Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai, China, from 2007 to 2016. We evaluated the prognostic significance of the pre-diagnostic serum lipid profile [cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), Apolipoprotein A1 (Apo A1) and Apolipoprotein B (Apo B)]. Prognostic factors identified through univariate and multivariate analysis were used to construct a new model based on Lasso Cox regression. Results indicated that lipid levels showed significant difference between ISS stages: Apo A1, Apo B, Cholesterol and LDL levels were lower in late ISS stage. However, only Apo A1 showed statistically significance in overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS) and cause specific survival (CSS) (P=0.038, P=0.028, P=0.011) in univariate Cox regression. Patients with higher Apo A1 displayed longer OS (median OS, 67 months vs. 30 months; P<0.001). Also, Apo A1 was revealed to be an independent prognostic indicator through multivariate analysis. Combining the Apo A1 level, Zhongshan Score model was constructed with Lasso regression for prognosis prediction. This model exhibited higher accuracy than International Staging System (ISS) and Durie and Salmon (DS) system. In conclusion, among all the serum lipid profiles, serum Apo A1 is a powerful prognostic indicator for patients with MM.

Keywords: multiple myeloma, lipid profile, apolipoprotein A1, prognosis, prognostic model

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How to cite this article:
Liang L, Li J, Fu H, Liu X, Liu P. Identification of High Serum Apolipoprotein A1 as a Favorable Prognostic Indicator in Patients with Multiple Myeloma. J Cancer 2019; 10(20):4852-4859. doi:10.7150/jca.31357. Available from http://www.jcancer.org/v10p4852.htm