J Cancer 2019; 10(16):3798-3809. doi:10.7150/jca.31364

Review

The Epithelial-Myeloid-Transition (EMyeT) of cancer cells as a wrongly perceived primary inflammatory process eventually progressing to a bone remodeling malignancy: the alternative pathway for Epithelial- Mesenchymal-Transition hypothesis (EMT)?

Henning M. Schramm

Institute for Integral Cancer Research (IFIK), CH-4144 Arlesheim/Switzerland

Abstract

Cancer cells express multiple markers expressed by mesenchymal as well as myeloid cells in common and in addition specific markers of the myeloid lineages, especially those of dendritic cells, macrophages and preosteoclasts. It has also been possible to identify monocyte-macrophage gene clusters in cancer cell specimens as well as in cancer cell lines.

Accordingly, like myeloid cells cancer cells often express pro-inflammatory cytokines, and consequently the carcinoma may be perceived by the organism as a primary inflammatory process comparable to the immune inflammatory reactions in the eye or in the case of arthritis. This would explain why a carcinoma may induce a certain alarm state in the organism by increasing a fatal sympathetic tone in the patient, supplying the carcinomas with nutrients at the cost of other requirements, inducing tolerance against the cancer cells mistaken as myeloid cells, provoking fibrosis and neoangiogenesis, and increasing inflammatory cells at the carcinoma site.

This seemingly inflammatory process of Epithelial-Myeloid-Transition (EMyeT) is superimposed by the progression of part of the myeloid cancer cells to stages comparable to preosteoclasts and osteoclasts, and their development to metastasizing carcinomas often at the site of bone.

This concept of carcinogenesis and malignant progression described here challenges the widely accepted EMT-hypotheses and could deliver the rationale for the various peculiar aspects of cancer and the variety of therapeutic antitumoral measures.

Keywords: Cancer, EMyeT, myeloid lineage cells, cancer as a non-healing wound, carcinoma as an inflammatory process, metastases as a false bone remodeling process

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/). See http://ivyspring.com/terms for full terms and conditions.
How to cite this article:
Schramm HM. The Epithelial-Myeloid-Transition (EMyeT) of cancer cells as a wrongly perceived primary inflammatory process eventually progressing to a bone remodeling malignancy: the alternative pathway for Epithelial- Mesenchymal-Transition hypothesis (EMT)?. J Cancer 2019; 10(16):3798-3809. doi:10.7150/jca.31364. Available from http://www.jcancer.org/v10p3798.htm