1. Department of Urology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China.
2. Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
3. Shanghai Genitourinary Cancer Institute, Shanghai, China.
4. Institute for translational brain research, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
* These authors contributed equally to this work.
Tripartite motif-containing protein 28 (TRIM28), as a transcriptional cofactor, has pleiotropic biological effects, such as silencing genes, promoting cellular proliferation and differentiation, and facilitating DNA repair. It is reported that TRIM28 is also correlated with immune infiltration in liver cancer that highlights an unnoticed function of TRIM28 in immune system. However, the prognostic and immunotherapeutic role of TRIM28 in human cancer has not been elucidated. In this study, we conducted a systematic pan-cancer analysis and partial experimental validation of TRIM28 as an immunological and prognostic predictor and its involvement in immunotherapy resistance. We found that TRIM28 expression was higher in various tumor tissues than in normal tissues. Higher TRIM28 expression was associated with poorer prognosis in multiple cancers. The expression of TRIM28 was positively correlated with the presence of T cells, macrophages and neutrophils, and TRIM28 also promoted the infiltration of a series of immune cell. Moreover, TRIM28 affected a wide range of cancer-related scores, and the abnormal expression of TRIM28 was also involved in tumor mutational burden, drug sensitivity, and microsatellite instability in cancer. The results suggest that TRIM28 is a potentially valuable immune response indicator and a molecular biomarker for predicting the prognosis of cancer patients.
Keywords: TRIM28, pan-cancer analysis, immunotherapy, prognostic biomarker