J Cancer 2014; 5(3):203-213. doi:10.7150/jca.8569 This issue
1. Department of Basic Sciences, the Commonwealth Medical College, 525 Pine Street, Scranton, PA 18509, USA.
2. Medizinische Universität Wien, Institut für Krebsforschung, Borschkegasse 8a, 1090 Wien, Austria.
3. Marywood University, 2300 Adams Avenue, Scranton, PA 18509, USA.
Dietary fiber intake is linked to a reduced risk of colon cancer. This effect may in part be due to butyrate, the fermentation product of fiber in the colon. Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid that acts as a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi). Butyrate induces apoptosis and represses clonal growth of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells, in a manner dependent upon the hyperactivation of Wnt /beta-catenin signaling. While fiber has been linked to CRC prevention, in vitro studies on the action of butyrate have used CRC cell lines, instead of cells representative of earlier stages of colonic neoplasia, which are the likely target of butyrate-mediated preventive activity. The LT97 cell line is derived from a microadenoma, the earliest stage of colonic neoplasia from which cells can be isolated. We characterized LT97 cells with respect to effects of butyrate on Wnt signaling and apoptosis, and we determined whether modulation of CREB binding protein (CBP)/p300 activity influences the ability of butyrate to induce Wnt activity and apoptosis. We report that in LT97 cells, butyrate induces apoptosis, strongly upregulates Wnt signaling, and the upregulation of Wnt signaling is dependent upon CBP/p300 activity. In addition, findings from overexpression experiments suggest differences between CBP and p300 in their ability to influence Wnt signaling in LT97 cells; p300, but not CBP, stimulates basal Wnt activity. We also evaluated differences in gene expression between early stage LT97 cells and late stage metastatic SW620 CRC cells that exhibit markedly different cellular phenotypes. The comparative gene expression analyses revealed differences that may impact neoplastic progression and the sensitivity to the effects of butyrate. The findings have implications for the prevention of CRC by fiber/butyrate.
Keywords: LT97, microadenoma, colorectal cancer, butyrate, CBP, p300.