J Cancer 2014; 5(3):242-247. doi:10.7150/jca.8486 This issue
Department of Cardiology, Pulmonology, and Nephrology,Yamagata University School of Medicine, 2-2-2 Iida-Nishi, Yamagata 990-9585, Japan.
Background: Lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE-1) is a hyaluronic acid receptor that is selectively expressed in the endothelia of lymphatic capillaries. The density of lymphatic vessels expressing LYVE-1 on immunohistochemistry negatively correlates with prognosis of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. However, the relationship between LYVE-1 serum levels and lung cancer staging is unknown.
Methods: We collected blood samples from 58 lung cancer patients before treatment and measured LYVE-1 serum levels using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Results: Mean serum LYVE-1 levels were 1,420 pg/mL. Serum LYVE-1 levels correlated positively with serum albumin levels, but inversely with primary tumor size, leukocyte counts, and platelet counts by Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient. A high cancer staging, occurrence of lymph-node metastases, and occurrence of distant metastases were significantly associated with low LYVE-1 levels. Moreover, multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that LYVE-1 levels were predictive of the presence of lymph node and distant metastases, independently of the other factors. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the survival of patients with serum LYVE-1 ≤1,553 pg/mL was significantly poorer than that of patients with serum LYVE-1 >1,553 pg/mL. This survival difference relative to LYVE-1 levels remained statistically significant after adjusting for age and gender by the Cox proportional-hazard analysis.
Conclusion: Serum LYVE-1 is significantly low in lung cancer patients with metastasis, compared with those without. Measuring LYVE-1 levels in lung cancer patients may be useful for evaluating lung cancer progression.
Keywords: lung cancer, LYVE-1, metastasis, survival, biomarker.