1. Department of Urology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai 200032 People's Republic of China
2. Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, People's Republic of China
† Contributed equally to the work
The soluble carrier (SLC) family plays an important role in cell metabolism. The purpose of the current study was to screen SLCs as potential prognostic factors in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). A total of 509 patients with ccRCC from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort were enrolled in this study. The expression profile of SLCs was obtained from the TCGA RNAseq database. Metadata of the TCGA cohort, including age, sex, TNM stage, tumor grade, American Joint Committee on Cancer stage, laterality, and overall survival, were collected. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to analyze the relative factors. Prognosis-associated genes were further validated in a Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FUSCC) cohort consisting of 178 patients. Among a total of 364 SLC transporters, 61 were independent predictors of ccRCC patient overall survival. Among the 61 SLC transporters, 26 were significantly downregulated and 23 were significantly upregulated in tumor tissues compared with non-malignant kidney tissues. Analyses of two open source, RNA expression data sets on sunitinib response revealed that SLC10A2 was downregulated in tyrosine kinase inhibitor-resistant samples. We validated SLC10A2 expression in the FUSCC cohort and showed that SLC10A2 expression was an independent prognostic predictor of overall survival of ccRCC (hazard ratio=0.432, 95% CI: 0.204-0.915). Our results identified a number of associations of SLC gene expression with prognosis of ccRCC patients, indicating that these genes may represent possible oncogenes that could serve as therapeutic targets of ccRCC.
Keywords: biomarker, clear cell renal cell carcinoma, prognosis, soluble carriers, transporters.