1. Department of Urology, Center for Prostate Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital of the National Cancer Center, Goyang, Korea;
2. Department of Pathology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea;
3. Department of Urology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
Purpose: To verify if the distinction between papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP) and noninvasive low-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma (LGPUC) reflects a different biologic activity.
Materials and Methods: We reviewed and analyzed the clinical data from 678 patients who had a diagnosis of PUNLMP (n=53) or noninvasive LGPUC (n=625) after initial TUR-BT for bladder neoplasm between 2000 and 2012.
Results: The noninvasive LGPUC group showed a higher frequency of recurrence in comparison with the PUNLMP group (46.7% vs. 30.2%, p=0.022). In contrast, there were no significant differences in progression (15.2% vs. 18.9%, p=0.295) between the two groups. Grade progression was reported in 10 patients (LG: n=5; high grade: n=2; carcinoma in situ: n=3) and stage progression was reported in 2 patients (all: T1) in PUNLMP group. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed significantly decreased 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) (50.3% vs. 74.6%, log-rank test, p=0.014) in the noninvasive LGPUC group compared to the PUNLMP group. However, there were no significant differences in progression-free survival (PFS) between the two groups. Multivariate analysis revealed that tumor grades according to 2004 WHO/ISUP classification system (PUNLMP vs. LG) were identified as significant predictors of RFS. However, it was not a significant predictor of both PFS and overall survival.
Conclusions: PUNLMP had a substantial number of recurrences (30.2%), although RFS was better than noninvasive LGPUC. In addition, PUNLMP had a similar risk of progression compared with noninvasive LGPUC. Consequently, PUNLMP should be treated in a manner similar to noninvasive LGPUC, and long-term clinical follow-up should be recommended for patients with PUNLMP.
Keywords: noninvasive low-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma, progression, PUNLMP, recurrence, urothelial carcinoma.