1. Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX;
2. Department of Nuclear Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX;
3. Department of Pediatrics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX;
4. Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX;
Objective: The existing literature of 18 F-FDG PET/CT in Ewing sarcoma investigates mixed populations of patients with both soft tissue and bone primary tumors. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) obtained with 18F-FDG PET/CT before and after induction chemotherapy can be used as an indicator of survival in patients with Ewing sarcoma originating exclusively in the skeleton.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective database search from 2004-2011 identified 28 patients who underwent 18 F-FDG PET/CT before (SUV1, n= 28) and after (SUV2, n=23) induction chemotherapy. Mean follow up was 3.3 years and median follow up for survivors was 6.3 years (range: 2.6-9.8 years). Multivariate and univariate Cox proportional hazard model was used to assess for correlation of SUV1, SUV2, and the change in SUVmax with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS).
Results: Mean SUVmax was 10.74 before (SUV1) and after 4.11 (SUV2) induction chemotherapy. High SUV1 (HR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.0-1.1, P = 0.01) and SUV2 (HR =1.2, 95% CI: 1.0-1.4, P = 0.01) were associated with worse OS. A cut off point of 11.6 was identified for SUV1. SUV1 higher than 11.6 had significantly worse OS (HR = 5.71, 95% CI: 1.85 - 17.61, P = 0.003) and PFS (HR = 3.16, 95% CI: 1.13 - 8.79, P = 0.03, P < 0.05 is significant).
Conclusion: 18F-FDG PET/CT can be used as a prognostic indicator for survival in primary Ewing sarcoma of bone.
Keywords: Ewing sarcoma, FDG PET/CT, SUV, Overall survival, Progression free survival.