J Cancer 2018; 9(3):469-478. doi:10.7150/jca.22869 This issue
1. State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China;
2. Breast Disease Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China;
3. Department of Maternal and Child Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.
* Authors contributed equally to this manuscript.
Background Reproductive factors have been well-documented risk factors for breast cancer. Few studies have examined whether the associations between reproductive factors and breast cancer differed across races/ethnicities. Methods We analyzed a sub-sample (70, 734) of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) dataset. Participants with valid baseline questionnaire and without breast cancer at enrollment were included into analysis. We stratified the participants into subgroups based on their races/ethnicities then estimated the effects of the reproductive factors on breast cancer within each group using Cox-proportion regression models. Results Oral contraceptive use (HR=1.09, 95% confidence interval or CI=1.01, 1.18), advanced age at natural menopause (HR=1.25, 95% CI=1.06, 1.49) were associated with increased risk of breast cancer in non-Hispanic Caucasians group only. Long term use of menopausal hormone therapy (more than five years) was associated with increased risk of breast cancer in both of the non-Hispanic Caucasian (HR=1.44, 95% CI=1.31, 1.59) group and the non-Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islander (HR=1.98, 95% CI=1.23, 3.20) group, but not in other race/ethnic groups. Hispanics who tried to become pregnant for a year or more had increased risk of breast cancer (HR=2.60, 95% CI=1.05, 6.46) than their counterparts without difficulty in getting pregnancy. In addition, surgery induced menopause was found to be a protective factor for breast cancer in non-Hispanic Caucasian (HR=0.88, 95% CI=0.79, 0.98) group only.
Conclusions We concluded that different races/ethnicities had different breast cancer related reproductive risk factors. Non-Hispanic Caucasians had the most breast cancer related reproductive risk factors, while the minorities had none or few breast cancer related reproductive risk factors and among these few factors only 1 was also risk factor for non-Hispanic Caucasians.
Keywords: breast cancer, reproductive factors, race differences, Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial.