J Cancer 2018; 9(11):1958-1965. doi:10.7150/jca.24238 This issue
1. Department of Immunology, Medical University of Bialystok, J. Waszyngtona 15A, 15-269 Białystok, Poland;
2. Department of Maxillofacial and Plastic Surgery, Medical University of Bialystok, M. Skłodowskiej-Curie 24A, 15-276 Białystok, Poland;
3. Department of Regenerative Medicine and Immunoregulation, Medical University of Bialystok, J. Waszyngtona 13, 15-269 Białystok, Poland;
4. Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Medical University of Bialystok, A. Mickiewicza 2D, 15-222 Białystok, Poland;
5. Department of Health Sciences, Medical University of Bialystok, Mieszka I 4B, 15-054 Białystok, Poland
Taking into account the previously reported relationship between inflammation and carcinogenesis, and the scant amount of data concerning the role of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in carcinogenesis, we decided to study the process of extracellular trap formation in patients with inflammation as well as in patients with cancer occurring in the same location. For preliminary isolation of neutrophils (PMNs), we used Polymorphprep™, then sorted with Microbeads. The cells were recorded in the incubation chamber with a BD Pathway 855 microscope system. Flow cytometric data (MPO+ neutrophils) were acquired on FACSCalibur flow cytometer. Amounts of cfDNA were determined by Abcam's Circulating DNA Quantification Kit. Neutrophils of patients with inflammation and of subjects with stage I/II oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) produce increased amounts of NETs, while stage III/IV OSCC were comparable with the control group. In all of the studied groups of cells stimulation with LPS and rhIL-17 produced more NETs in relation to unstimulated cells. Neutrophil supernatant of inflammation patients and stage I/II cancer patients demonstrated the increased level of cfDNA, which decreased at stage III/IV. Patients with oral inflammations showed an increased rate of MPO+ neutrophils, which was lower than in stage I/II cancer patients and not significantly different than in Stage III/IV cancer patients and the control group. The direction of changes in NETs formation seems to be a new common element shared by inflammation and early stage cancer. Changes in the formation of NETs observed in patients with advanced cancer, other than an early phase or inflammation, indicate an alternative range of NETs involvement depending on different phases of this disease.
Keywords: cancer, inflammation, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), neutrophils (PMNs), oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)