1. Department of Urology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Wenhuaxi Road 107#, Jinan, 250012, P.R.China
2. Department of Bone and Soft Tissue Tumor, Shandong Cancer Hospital affiliated to Shandong University, Wenhuaxi Road 440#, Jinan, 250117, P.R.China
3. Department of Urology, The People's Hospital of Liaocheng, Dongchangxi Road 67#, Liaocheng, 252000, P.R.China
4. Department of Urology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191, China.
5. Department of Urology, The people's Hospital of Yucheng, Kaituo Road 753#, Dezhou, 251200, P.R.China
*: These authors contribute equally to the manuscript.
Objective: To evaluate the value of serum sialic acid (SA) in diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostate cancer (PCa), and bone metastases in PCa patients.
Materials and Methods: Data from 540 patients who were newly diagnosed with PCa or BPH between November 2014 and March 2018 were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Pretreatment SA levels were compared across various groups, then, associations between SA levels and clinic parameters of patients were analyzed as well. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were further used to identify independent associations.
Results: The mean SA levels in patients with PCa were significantly higher than with BPH (p = 0.013). Furthermore, PCa patients with bone metastases showed elevated SA levels compared with PCa without bone metastases (p < 0.001). A multivariate logistic regression model showed that: SA level > 52.35 mg/dL was identified to be independently associated with the diagnosis of PCa (HR = 1.645, p = 0.036), and SA level > 59 mg/dL was identified to be independent association with the presence of bone metastases in PCa patients (HR = 6.421, p = 0.012).
Conclusions: Elevated SA level is an independent predictor of prostate cancer as well as its bone metastases. Therefore, SA level may be a promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for prostate cancer and bone metastases.
Keywords: prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia, bone metastases, serum sialic acid.