J Cancer 2019; 10(11):2434-2442. doi:10.7150/jca.30659 This issue
Yong Yi, Wenhua Zhang, JianqiaoYi and Zhi-Xiong Xiao
Metformin has been used as therapy for type 2 diabetes for many years. Clinical and basic evidence as indicated that metformin has anti-cancer activities. It has been well-established that metformin activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which in turn regulates energy homeostasis. However, the mechanistic aspects of metformin anti-cancer activity remain elusive. p53 family proteins, including p53, p63 and p73, have diverse biological functions, including regulation of cell growth, survival, development, senescence and aging. In this review, we highlight the evidence and mechanisms by which metformin inhibits cancer cell survival and tumor growth. We also aimed to discuss the role of p53 family proteins in metformin-mediated suppression of cancer growth and survival.
Keywords: metformin, AMPK, p53, p63, p73, cancer