1. Department of Pediatric, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital and Guangdong Academy of Medical Science, Guangzhou 510080, Guangdong, China
2. Theragnostic Laboratory, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Biomedical Sciences Group, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, Leuven 3000, Belgium
3. Department of Neonatal Intensive Care, Chaozhou People's Hospital, Chaozhou 521000, Guangdong, China
4. Department of Radiology, Puning People's Hospital, Puning 515300, Guangdong, China
*These authors contributed equally to this study.
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the fifth most common malignancy in children, and the prognosis for AML in children remains relatively poor. However, its incidence and survival trends based on a large sample size have not been reported.
Children diagnosed with AML between 1975 and 2014 were accessed from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Incidence and survival trends were evaluated by age-adjusted incidence and relative survival rates (RSRs) and Kaplan-Meier analyses. Cox regression was performed to identify independent risk factors for child AML death.
The overall incidence of AML in childhood increased each decade between 1975 and 2014, with the total age-adjusted incidence increasing from 5.766 to 6.615 to 7.478 to 7.607 per 1,000,000 persons. In addition, the relative survival rates of AML in childhood improved significantly, with 5-year RSRs increasing from 22.40% to 39.60% to 55.50% to 68.30% over the past four decades (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, survival disparities among different races and socioeconomic statuses have continued to widen over the past four decades. Multivariate Cox regression analyses showed a higher risk of death in Black patients (HR = 1.245, 95% CI: 1.077-1.438, p = 0.003) with Whites as a reference.
These results may help predict future trends for AML in childhood, better design clinical trials by eliminating disparities, and ultimately improve clinical management and outcome.
Keywords: AML, incidence, survival, children, period analysis