J Cancer 2019; 10(24):6048-6056. doi:10.7150/jca.34465 This issue

Research Paper

High expression of CHML predicts poor prognosis of multiple myeloma

Weilong Zhang1*, Ling Cao2*, Xiaoni Liu3*, Xue He4, Ye Zhang5, Zuozhen Yang1, Ping Yang1, Jing Wang1, Kai Hu1, Xiuru Zhang4, Weiyou Liu3✉, Xiaoliang Yuan3✉, Hongmei Jing1✉

1. Department of Hematology, Lymphoma Research Center, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, 100191, China
2. Gannan Medical University, Ganzhou, 341000, China
3. Department of Respiratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Gannan Medical University, Ganzhou, 341000, China
4. Department of Pathology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100070, China
5. Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, 3010, Australia
*These authors contributed equally to this work.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). See http://ivyspring.com/terms for full terms and conditions.
Zhang W, Cao L, Liu X, He X, Zhang Y, Yang Z, Yang P, Wang J, Hu K, Zhang X, Liu W, Yuan X, Jing H. High expression of CHML predicts poor prognosis of multiple myeloma. J Cancer 2019; 10(24):6048-6056. doi:10.7150/jca.34465. Available from https://www.jcancer.org/v10p6048.htm

File import instruction


Multiple myeloma is a hematological tumor with a malignant proliferation of myeloma cells. Although the survival time after treatment has improved, the recurrence rate of MM is still high. Choroideremia-like (CHML) protein is essential for the prenylation modification of various Rab proteins and it exerts biological effects on vesicle trafficking and signal transduction. However, little is identified about the relationship between CHML gene and MM. We integrated gene expression profiles of 1907 MM patients (1959 MM samples) from the 7 datasets. The relationship between CHML gene expression level and event-free survival (EFS), overall survival (OS), ISS stage, molecular subtype, relapse, therapy was analyzed. The differential gene exression profile of CHML-high MM group and CHML-low MM group and possible pathway related to CHML were conducted. Our data showed that EFS (P < 0.0001) and OS (P < 0.0001) in MM patients with high expression of CHML were lower than those with low CHML expression. The gene expression level of CHML was increased in subtypes of MM with poor prognosis, especially in proliferation subtype (P < 0.001). Cell division pathway (P < 0.01) was high enriched of the differential expressed genes of CHML-high group vs CHML-low group. CHML gene can be considered as an independent factor to evaluate the prognosis of MM. High expression of CHML is associated with poor survival, which is related to cell proliferation and cell division of myeloma cells.

Keywords: CHML, multiple myeloma, prognosis, gene expression profile, cell division