J Cancer 2020; 11(2):311-323. doi:10.7150/jca.33982 This issue
1. Department of Clinical Laboratory, Jiangsu Cancer Hospital & Jiangsu Institute of Cancer Research & the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210009, P. R. China.
2. Department of Clinical Laboratory, Nanjing Qixia District Hospital, Nanjing 210000, P. R. China.
3. Department of Surgery, Jiangsu Cancer Hospital & Jiangsu Institute of Cancer Research & the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210009, P. R. China.
4. Department of Pathology, Jiangsu Cancer Hospital & Jiangsu Institute of Cancer Research & the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210009, P. R. China.
Background: DC-STAMP domain containing 1-antisense 1 (DCST1-AS1) is a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) that is up-regulated in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) tissues. Here, we attempt to investigate the oncogenic property of DCST1-AS1.
Methods: LncRNA microarrays were used to detect differentially expressed lncRNA in cancerous tissues. Fluorescence in situ hybridization assay was used to detect the distribution of DCST1-AS1 in BT-549 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Lentiviral systems, inhibitors, siRNA and overexpression plasmids were used for gain- and loss-of-function experiments. Colony formation assay, wound healing assay, CCK8 assay, transwell assay, and flow cytometry assay were used to study the function of DCST1-AS1. Luciferase assay was used to verify the binding of MYC to the promoter region and the binding of miR-873-5p to DCST1-AS1. RNA immunoprecipitation assay was used to verify that argonaute 2 binds to both miR-873-5p and DCST1-AS1. Western blotting was used to measure changes in protein expression.
Results: Consistent with the microarray results, we found that DCST1-AS1 was up-regulated in both TNBC tissue samples and cell lines. DCST1-AS1 was positively correlated with distant metastasis and histopathological grades. DCST1-AS1 is distributed in both nucleus and cytoplasm. Knockdown of DCST1-AS1 inhibits TNBC cell proliferation and metastasis, while overexpression of DCST1-AS1 promotes TNBC cell proliferation and metastasis. We confirmed that DCST1-AS1 expression in TNBC cells is regulated by MYC. Furthermore, we found that DCST1-AS1 is negatively correlated with miR-873-5p in TNBC tissues and is a direct target gene of miR-873-5p. Argonaute 2 is involved in the binding of DCST1-AS1 and miR-873-5p and promotes the degradation of DCST1-AS1. The interaction of DCST1-AS1 with miR-873-5p ultimately up-regulated the expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1), MYC, CD44 and lymphoid enhancer binding factor 1 (LEF1).
Conclusions: DCST1-AS1 is activated by MYC and is degraded by binding to miR-873-5p, thereby upregulating the expression of miR-873-5p downstream proteins IGF2BP1, MYC, LEF1 and CD44. MYC, DCST1-AS1 and miR-873-5p form a positive regulatory loop to promote TNBC cell proliferation and metastasis.
Keywords: long noncoding RNA, MYC, miR-873-5p, IGF2BP1, metastasis.