J Cancer 2020; 11(8):2339-2347. doi:10.7150/jca.32491 This issue
1. Medical Imaging Center of the Affiliated Hospital, Weifang Medical University, Weifang 261053 P. R.China
2. Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021 P. R. China
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic response of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) with diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI).
Methods: Forty-three patients with fifty-nine hepatic cancer nodules were recruited for this study. All patients were treated by TACE. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and DKI (b=0, 800, 1,500, 2,000mm2/s) were performed before and one month after initiating TACE. Patients were classified as either progressing groups or non-progressing groups. Mean kurtosis (MK), mean diffusion (MD), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the tumor tissue were analyzed.
Results: Twenty-three HCCs were classified as progressing groups, and thirty-six HCCs were non-progressing groups. After TACE, the values of MD and ADC in non-progressing groups (1.92±0.36×10-3mm2/s, 1.36±0.23×10-3mm2/s) were greater than progressing groups (1.44±0.32× 10-3mm2/s, 1.10±0.23×10-3mm2/s), however, the MK values in non-progressing groups (0.47±0.12) were lower than progressing groups (0.72±0.14). The MK values of tumor among non-progressing patients decreased one month after TACE (0.47±0.12) relative to the preoperative values (0.71±0.12) (P<0.05). In the non-progressing groups, the MD and ADC values of tumor after TACE (1.92±0.36×10-3mm2/s, 1.36±0.23×10-3mm2/s) became higher than their preoperative values (1.44±0.35×10-3mm2/s, 1.09±0.22×10-3mm2/s) (P<0.05). In the progressing groups, the MK, MD, and ADC values of tumor after TACE remained similar before TACE (P>0.05). The sensitivity, specificity, and AUC of the ROC curve for the assessment of HCC progress after TACE by MK (85.2%, 97.5%, and 0.95, respectively) were greater than by ADC (78.6%, 66.5%, and 0.75, respectively) and MD (76.2%, 64.3%, and 0.71, respectively).
Conclusions: DKI for assessing the therapeutic response of TACE in HCC shows great promise. MK is more advantageous in the assessment of HCC progress after TACE.
Keywords: diffusion kurtosis imaging, hepatocellular carcinoma, transcatheter arterial chemoembolization