J Cancer 2021; 12(12):3686-3700. doi:10.7150/jca.57776

Review

Phytochemicals in Chemoprevention: A Cost-Effective Complementary Approach

Aayush Jain1, Chikezie O. Madu2, Yi Lu3✉

1. Departments of Biological Sciences, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152. USA.
2. Departments of Biological Sciences, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152. USA.
3. Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163. USA.

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Citation:
Jain A, Madu CO, Lu Y. Phytochemicals in Chemoprevention: A Cost-Effective Complementary Approach. J Cancer 2021; 12(12):3686-3700. doi:10.7150/jca.57776. Available from https://www.jcancer.org/v12p3686.htm

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Abstract

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death across the world. Although conventional cancer treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy have effectively decreased cancer progression, they come with many dose-limiting side-effects. Phytochemicals that naturally occur in spices, fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes, and other common foods are surprisingly effective complements to conventional cancer treatments. These biologically active compounds demonstrate anticancer effects via cell signaling pathway interference in cancerous cells. In addition, phytochemicals protect non-cancerous cells from chemotherapy-induced side-effects. This paper addresses the not only the potential of phytochemicals quercetin, isoflavones, curcumin, catechins, and hesperidin in terms of cancer treatment and protection against side-effects of chemotherapy, but also methods for increasing phytochemical bioavailability.

Keywords: anticancer, phytochemicals, healthcare economy, targeted prevention, bioavailability