J Cancer 2022; 13(1):202-211. doi:10.7150/jca.65246 This issue
Department of Radiation Oncology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.
Xiaorong Hou, Ke Hu and Fuquan Zhang contributed equally to this work.
Purpose: To evaluate the recurrent patterns and effect of clinicopathological factors on survival after recurrence (R-OS) in early stage endometrial cancer (EC).
Methods: Patients with FIGO stage I-II EC, who underwent post-surgery radiotherapy (RT) at our institution between 2000 and 2017, were enrolled. First recurrent patterns, overall survival (OS), and R-OS were evaluated. Univariate and multivariate analyses (MVA) were used to evaluate factors associated with R-OS.
Results: 756 patients were analyzed including 510 patients who received vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) and 246 patients who received external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) ± VBT, of whom 66 patients experienced recurrence, including 21 locoregional relapses and 45 distant metastases. Outside RT field recurrence predominated intra-RT field recurrence (106 versus 10 lesions). The 5-year OS rates for patients with and without recurrence were 62.2% and 98.2%, respectively (p<0.001). Among patients who underwent previous VBT, the 5-year OS rates were 61.1%, 92.3%, and 99.1% for distant metastasis, locoregional relapse, and non-recurrence, respectively (p<0.001); among patients who received EBRT ± VBT, the 5-year OS rates were 51.4%, 50.0%, and 98.3%, respectively (p<0.001).On Cox MVA of R-OS for locoregional recurrence patients, para-aortic lymph node metastasis was associated with poorer R-OS (hazard ratio [HR] 10.047, p=0.039), and salvage RT was superior to other therapies (HR 0.06, p=0.026). On Cox MVA of R-OS for distant metastasis, patients with brain metastasis (p=0.041) had the worst R-OS and patients benefited most from combined therapy (HR 0.02, p=0.001).
Conclusion: Recurrent patterns were dominated by outside RT field and distant metastasis for early-stage ECs after adjuvant RT. The modality of prior RT had an impact on the choice of salvage therapy. RT could still be an effective salvage treatment for patients who develop locoregional recurrence. Patients with distant metastasis may benefit from combined therapies.
Keywords: endometrial cancer, post-recurrence survival, salvage treatment, reirradiation