J Cancer 2022; 13(7):2293-2300. doi:10.7150/jca.69269 This issue

Research Paper

PDZRN4 suppresses tumorigenesis and androgen therapy-resistance in prostate cancer

Peng Jin, Lielin Wu, Gang Zhang, Bo Yang, Bisong Zhu

Organ Transplant Center, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, PCR, 410008.

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Jin P, Wu L, Zhang G, Yang B, Zhu B. PDZRN4 suppresses tumorigenesis and androgen therapy-resistance in prostate cancer. J Cancer 2022; 13(7):2293-2300. doi:10.7150/jca.69269. Available from https://www.jcancer.org/v13p2293.htm

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Graphic abstract

Background: PDZRN4 (PDZ domain-containing RING finger 4), a member of the LNX (ligand of numb protein-X) family that regulates the levels of NUMB, plays a critical role in suppressing the proliferation and invasion of hormone-related malignant tumours. There are few studies on the role of PDZRN4 in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer (PCa). We aimed to examine whether PDZRN4 regulates the growth and development of PCa.

Methods: Cell transduction and Western blotting were used to establish and confirm PDZRN4 knock down in PC cells. Using the MTT, wound healing, transwell migration, and animal experiments, we explored the biological function of PDZRN4 knockdown (PDZRN4-kd) cells. Via PCR and immunohistochemistry, the mRNA and protein expression of PDZRN4 was examined in PC cells and tissues.

Results: Hormone-dependent (LNCap) and hormone-independent (DU145, PC3, and C4-2) PC lines were transfected with lentivirus carrying PDZRN4 shRNA. The Western blotting results showed that the expression of PDZRN4 was stably downregulated in PDZRN4 knockdown (PDZRN4-kd) cells. The proliferation, invasion and migration of PDZRN4-kd cells were dramatically increased in vivo. To explore the expression of PDZRN4 in prostate cancer samples, we analysed TCGA data and found that PDZRN4 was negatively correlated with the development of PC. PDZRN4 levels were downregulated by androgen deprivation in hormone-sensitive cells. Moreover, PDZRN4 failed to induce proliferation in DU145 cells with androgen deprivation.

Conclusions: PDZRN4 is a functional suppressor of prostate cancer growth and development and is a potential target of biochemical therapy in hormone-resistant PC.

Keywords: PDZRN4, prostate cancer, CRPC, androgen