J Cancer 2018; 9(6):1121-1126. doi:10.7150/jca.24397 This issue

Research Paper

Inhaled Immunotherapy Administration for Lung Cancer; Efficient? Certainly Possible

Konstantinos Sapalidis1✉*, Paul Zarogoulidis2✉*, Haidong Huang3*, Chong Bai3*, Yuting Wen4*, Li Wang4*, Konstantina Boniou5, Ilias Karapantzos6, Chrysanthi Karapantzou6, Michael Karanikas7, Vasilis Thomaidis8, Christoforos Kosmidis9, Chrysanthi Sardeli10, Naim Benhassen11, Yan-Gao Man12, Maria C. Florou4, Stylianos Mantalovas4, Stella Laskou4, Dimitris Giannakidis4, Charilaos Koulouris4, Aikaterini Amaniti13, Isaak Kesisoglou1, Wolfgang Hohenforst-Schmidt14

1. 3rd Department of Surgery, “AHEPA” University Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Medical School, Thessaloniki, Greece
2. Pulmonary Department-Oncology Unit, “Theageneio” Cancer Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece
3. Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China
4. Department of Respiratory Diseases, The Affiliated Jiangning hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China
5. Radiation-Oncology Department, “Theageneio” Cancer Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece
6. Ear, Nose and Throat Department, “Saint Luke“ Private Hospital, Panorama, Thessaloniki, Greece
7. 1 st University Surgery Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Alexandroupolis, Alexandroupolis, Greece
8. Anatomy Department, Democritus University of Alexandroupolis, Alexandroupolis, Greece
9. Surgery Department, Interbalkan European Medical Center, Thessaloniki, Greece
10. Department of Pharmacology & Clinical Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
11. Medical Clinic I, "Fuerth" Hospital, University of Erlangen, Fuerth, Germany
12. Department of Pathology, Hackensack Meridian Health-Hackensack University Medical Center, NJ, USA
13. Anesthesiology Department, “AHEPA” University General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
14. Sana Clinic Group Franken, Department of Cardiology / Pulmonology / Intensive Care / Nephrology, ''Hof'' Clinics, University of Erlangen, Hof, Germany
* contributed equally to this work.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/). See http://ivyspring.com/terms for full terms and conditions.
Sapalidis K, Zarogoulidis P, Huang H, Bai C, Wen Y, Wang L, Boniou K, Karapantzos I, Karapantzou C, Karanikas M, Thomaidis V, Kosmidis C, Sardeli C, Benhassen N, Man YG, Florou MC, Mantalovas S, Laskou S, Giannakidis D, Koulouris C, Amaniti A, Kesisoglou I, Hohenforst-Schmidt W. Inhaled Immunotherapy Administration for Lung Cancer; Efficient? Certainly Possible. J Cancer 2018; 9(6):1121-1126. doi:10.7150/jca.24397. Available from https://www.jcancer.org/v09p1121.htm

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Lung cancer is still diagnosed at a late stage in most lung cancer patients. Regarding Non-small Cell lung cancer there are novel therapies such as; tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immunotherapy. Currently we have two immunotherapies that can be used either as first-line treatment or second line treatment; pembrolizumab and nivolumab. A third one is being investigated as a combination of immunotherapy; ipilimumab. Aerosol treatment has been investigated for many diseases not only for the lung, but also for systematic diseases. The design of cups was found the most significant factor in producing significant effects. The comparison of cups reveals the design J as the most capable of reducing the droplets at a minimum size of mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) MMAD=1.99. Drug effect comes second in sequence (F=62.04) showing that nivolumab is the most drastic preparation at low particle sizes (1.89), two drugs share an intermediate particle diameter (pembrolizumab and ipilimumab). In total drugs demonstrate a decreasing droplet size: Ipilimumab>Pembrolizumab> Nivolumab.

Keywords: lung cancer, ipilimumab, pembrolizumab, nivolumab, nsclc