1. Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ren Ji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
2. Department of Cancer Metabolism, Institute of Health Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
3. Key Lab. For Molecular Biology & Imaging, Shanghai University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Shanghai, China
*contributed equally to this work.
Purpose: The value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography /computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) in assessing bone marrow involvement (BMI) of lymphoma remains controversial. The present study aims to evaluate the prognostic meaning of bone marrow FDG uptake pattern in PET/CT of newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients.
Materials and Methods: 193 newly diagnosed DLBCL patients were retrospectively analyzed. All patients received 6-8 cycles of rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (R-CHOP). The type of BM FDG uptake pattern was recorded by two blinded reviewers independently. The relationship between clinicopathologic features and BM patterns was analyzed. The prognostic value of different BM patterns was evaluated by Log-rank test and Cox-regression analysis.
Results: Out of 193 patients, 28 (15%) patients had focal BM FDG uptake higher than liver (fPET+), 18 (9%) patients showed diffuse BM uptake higher than liver (dPET+) and 147 (76%) patients had normal BM uptake (lower than liver) (nPET). BMB positive was found in 35.7% (10/28) of fPET+ patients, in 16.7% (3/18) of dPET+ patients and in 0.7% (1/147) of nPET patients. Diffuse BM pattern was associated with lower hemoglobin level and a trend of higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). dPET+ patients had similar 3y-progression-free survival (3y-PFS) and 3y-overall survival (3y-OS) compared with nPET patients (80.5% vs 81.5%, p=0.701; 94.1% vs 90.6%, p=0.809, respectively), while fPET+ patients had worse 3y-PFS and 3y-OS compared with fPET- patients (32.7% vs 81.4%, p<0.001; 69.4% vs 90.9%, p=0.003, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed fPET+ (HR=2.270, p=0.025) and stage III/IV (HR=4.909, p=0.026) were independent predictors for PFS, but no factors were independently predictive for OS.
Conclusion: PET/CT-directed BM patterns are meaningful in predicting prognosis of newly diagnosed DLBCL patients. Focal BM pattern is an independent predictor for PFS.
Keywords: DLBCL, PET/CT, bone marrow, FDG uptake pattern, prognosis