J Cancer 2018; 9(18):3400-3406. doi:10.7150/jca.23923 This issue

Research Paper

High expression of F2RL3 correlates with aggressive features and poor survival in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

Dalong Cao1,4,*, Yuanyuan Qu1,4,*, Xuan Zhang2,*, Fujiang Xu3, Shuxian Zhou3, Guiming Zhang5, Bo Dai1,4, Yao Zhu1,4, Guohai Shi1,4, Yijun Shen1,4, Yiping Zhu1,4, Hailiang Zhang1,4,✉, Dingwei Ye1,4,✉, Jianyuan Zhao2,✉

1. Department of Urology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai 200032, China
2. The State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering and Collaborative Innovation Center of Genetics & Development, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
3. Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China
4. Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China
5. Department of Urology, The affiliated hospital of Qingdao University, Shandong, 266071, China
*These authors contributed equally to this work.

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Cao D, Qu Y, Zhang X, Xu F, Zhou S, Zhang G, Dai B, Zhu Y, Shi G, Shen Y, Zhu Y, Zhang H, Ye D, Zhao J. High expression of F2RL3 correlates with aggressive features and poor survival in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. J Cancer 2018; 9(18):3400-3406. doi:10.7150/jca.23923. Available from https://www.jcancer.org/v09p3400.htm

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Background: Specific lifestyle factors including tobacco-exposure are vital etiologic factors for renal cell carcinoma (RCC), F2R Like Thrombin/Trypsin Receptor 3 (F2RL3) is associated with smoking but it is unknown whether its expression translate into poor survival of clear cell RCC (ccRCC). In the current study, the expression profiling and prognostic value of F2RL3 in Chinese patients with ccRCC were investigated.

Methods: Using Quantitative PCR analysis and immunohistochemistry, the relative expression levels of F2RL3 in 367 paired ccRCC and adjacent normal tissues were calculated. Cox regression analysis was used to identify independent prognostic factors and Kaplan-Meier analysis and a log-rank test were employed to evaluate the prognostic value of F2RL3.

Results: We observed that high expression of F2RL3 mRNA and protein were strongly correlated with shorten progression-free survival (PFS) of ccRCC with hazard ratios (HR; 95% confidence interval (CI)) of 2.060 (1.410-3.009) and 1.657 (1.193-2.300), respectively, as well as with poor overall survival (OS) with HRs (95%CI) of 2.826 (1.713-4.662) and 1.712 (1.140-2.569), respectively. After adjustment for confounding factors including smoking status, elevated HRs (95%CI) of 2.113 (1.445-3.089) and 1.692 (1.218-2.352) were presented for PFS, respectively, and 2.936 (1.777-4.851) and 1.811 (1.203-2.725) were present for OS, respectively. Meanwhile, increased F2RL3 mRNA and protein level were reported to significantly associate with smoking-exposure and well-known prognostic factors (higher TNM stage and ISUP grade).

Conclusion: These findings suggested that F2RL3 mRNA and protein level in ccRCC is a robust predictor of poorly prognostic phenotype. Exploring the causal relevance of F2RL3 in ccRCC development further warrants in the future study.

Keywords: F2RL3 expression, aggressive features, poor survival, renal cell carcinoma