J Cancer 2018; 9(19):3557-3569. doi:10.7150/jca.26350 This issue
1. Shanghai Municipal Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, 200071, P.R. China.
2. Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Shanghai Municipal Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, 200071, P.R. China.
3. Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200030, P.R. China.
# These authors contributed equally to this study.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers, leading to the second cancer-related death in the global. Although the treatment of HCC has greatly improved over the past few decades, the survival rate of patients is still quite low. Thus, it is urgent to explore new therapies, especially seek for more accurate biomarkers for early diagnosis, treatment and prognosis in HCC. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small noncoding RNAs, are pivotal participants and regulators in the development and progression of HCC. Great progress has been made in the studies of miRNAs in HCC. The key regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs include proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, metastasis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), angiogenesis, drug resistance and autophagy in HCC. And exosomal miRNAs also play important roles in proliferation, invasion, metastasis, and drug resistance in HCC by regulating gene expression in the target cells. In addition, some miRNAs, including exosomal miRNAs, can be as potential diagnostic and prediction markers in HCC. This review summarizes the latest researches development of miRNAs in HCC in recent years.
Keywords: microRNAs, hepatocellular carcinoma, exosomes, regulatory mechanism, diagnosis, prediction, marker