J Cancer 2019; 10(1):238-248. doi:10.7150/jca.27103 This issue
1. Women's Reproductive Health Key Laboratory of Zhejiang Province, Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310006, P.R. China;
2. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310006, P.R. China.
Background and Aims: This study was aim to investigate the relationship between the four intron SNPs (rs3087404, rs2029167, rs2029166 and rs7296239) of SMUG1 and the susceptibility of cervical squamous cell carcinoma.
Methods: Four SMUG1 intron SNPs (rs3087404, rs2029167, rs2029166 and rs7296239) were genotyped by MA-PCR in 400 CSCCs, 400 CIN III and 1200 controls. qRT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the SMUG1 mRNA and protein expression.
Results: Interestingly, we found that the homozygous GG of rs3087404 had a significantly increased risk of CIN III [OR=1.78(1.27-2.51), P= 0.001] and CSCCs [OR=4.04(2.94-5.55), P=0.000]. The individuals with G allele or G carrier (AG +GG) at rs3087404 were at higher risk for CSCCs [OR=1.34 (1.04-1.71), P= 0.022]. Similarly, the homozygous GG of rs2029167 also had an increased risk of CIN III [OR=2.56 (1.91-3.43), P= 0.000] and CSCCs [OR=4.05(3.02-5.44), P=0.000]. The individuals with G allele or G carrier (AG +GG) at rs2029167 were at higher risk for CINIII [OR=1.41(1.10-1.80), P= 0.006] and CSCCs [OR=1.91 (1.48-2.47), P= 0.000]. In HR-HPV positive group, both the homozygous GG of rs3087404 and the homozygous GG of rs2029167 had an increased risk to CIN III and CSCC. Stratified analysis of the number of sexual partners and the age of first sexual intercourse found that the rs3087404 (A/G) had a particularly high level of enrichment in the CIN III or CSCCs groups. About the rs2029167 (A/G), we only found a particularly high level of enrichment grouping by the number of sexual partners in the CIN III and CSCCs groups. Meanwhile, we also found that there is a correlation between the SNPs of SMUG1 rs3087404 (A/G) and rs2029167 (A/G) with tumor cell differentiation and family heredity. But we didn't find that there was an association between the deferent genotypes of SMUG1 rs2029166 and rs7296239 with SMUG1 gene mRNA or protein expression. During the linkage disequilibrium analysis between rs3087404 (A/G) and rs2029167 (A/G), the genotype with AA-GG [OR=3.14(1.95-5.05)], AG-GG [OR=2.45(1.58-3.89)], GG-AA [OR=2.24(1.28-3.90)] and GG-AG [OR=2.58(1.54-4.32)] significantly increased the risk of CIN III. More notably, this risk is much greater in CSCCs: AA-GG [OR=7.13(4.03-12.61)], AG-GG [OR=7.22(4.21-12.38)], GG-AA [OR=8.60(4.73-15.63)], GG-AG [OR=9.64(5.43-17.13)]. Additionally, most GG (rs3087404) genotypes were linkage GG-AG (44/77, 80/140) in the CIN III and CSCCs, while most GG (rs2029167) genotypes were linkage genotype AG-GG (79/145, 112/184) in the CIN III and CSCCs, respectively.
Conclusions: These findings suggested that there was association between the two genetic polymorphisms of SMUG1 rs3087404(A/G) and rs2029167(A/G) with the susceptibility of CIN III and CSCCs, and there was a linkage disequilibrium between the rs3087404 with the rs2029167 in CIN III and CSCCs. This particular linkage disequilibrium can be used as predictive biomarkers of CIN III and CSCC.
Keywords: SMUG1, intron, genetic variant, linkage disequilibrium, cervical squamous cell carcinoma, CIN III