J Cancer 2019; 10(15):3435-3443. doi:10.7150/jca.30425 This issue
1. Department of Respiratory Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China
2. Cancer Center, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China
3. Oncology Department, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, China
4. Department of Thoracic Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China
Purpose: Smoking is a strong relative risk factor for lung cancer. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), particularly exosomes, have been implicated in cancers. In this study, we characterized smoking induced extracellular vesicles in smokers with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Methods: EVs were isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from smokers and NSCLC patients. EV microRNAs (miRNAs) were analyzed by using a TaqMan microRNA assays. Vesicle mRNAs and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) were measured with quantitative RT-PCR. Tumor associated antigens were examined by Western Blot.
Results: Higher levels of local site EVs are found in the lung of smokers and NSCLC patients. Further, over 90% of lung EVs are round vesicles of approximately 50-200 nm, ie., exosomes. There are 21 EV miRNAs up regulated, while 10 miRNAs under regulated, in smokers when compared to controls (relative fold > 2, p < 0.05). These miRNAs were further observed to be dysregulated in NSCLC patients when compared to smokers. Bioinformatic analysis demonstrated that Proteoglycans, Fatty acid biosynthesis, ErbB, Hippo, TGF-beta, Wnt, Rap1, AMPK and Ras pathways were the most prominent pathways enriched in NSCLC EV miRNA signatures. In addition, messenger RNA transcripts including EGFR, KRAS, ALK, MET, LKB1, BRAF, PIK3CA, RET, and ROS1 were significantly higher expressed in lung EVs in smokers and NSCLC patients compared to controls. Long non-coding RNAs, including MALAT1, HOTAIR, HOTTIP, AGAP2-AS1, ATB, TCF7, FOXD2-AS1, HOXA11-AS, PCAF1, and BCAR4, were over expressed in EVs from smokers and NSCLC patients. Furthermore, protein levels of tumor associated antigens including BAGE, PD-L1, MAGE-3, and AKAP4 were significantly dysregulated in EVs of smokers and NSCLC patients compared to healthy controls.
Conclusions: In conclusion, these data demonstrated an intrinsic relationship of smoking dysregulated EVs and EVs contained RNA, proteins which may involve in the development of NSCLC.
Keywords: extracellular vesicles, smoker, NSCLC, tumor associated antigens