1. Department of Medical Oncology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Clinical Study on Anticancer Molecular Targeted Drugs, National Cancer Center/ National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/ Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, P.R. China
2. Cancer Center of Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, P.R. China
3. The Medical Department, 3D Medicines Inc, Shanghai, P.R. China
4. Department of radiology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Clinical Study on Anticancer Molecular Targeted Drugs, National Cancer Center/ National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/ Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, P.R. China
Background: Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) has been widely utilized to evaluate new therapeutic strategies in cancer. However, RECIST fails to assess the heterogeneity of response in highly active therapies. Depth of response (DepOR), defined as the maximum percentage change in tumor size compared with baseline, may provide a new strategy to evaluate disease response. In the present study, we studied the association between DepOR and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI).
Methods: Advanced NSCLC patients harboring EGFR driver mutation (L858R or exon 19 deletion) treated with EGFR-TKI from August 2014 to July 2017 from two sites were retrospetively collected for analysis. Patients were divided into four groups by DepOR (Q1 = 1-25%, Q2 = 26-50%, Q3 = 51-75%, Q4 = 76-100%). Kaplan-Meier curves were plotted for PFS against DepOR and the hazard ratio (HR) was determined through univariable and multivariable cox regression models.
Results: In total, 265 patients were included for analysis. The number of patients in Group Q1-Q4 were 91 (34.3%), 73 (27.5%), 65 (24.5%) and 36 (13.6%), respectively. A greater DepOR was significantly associated with a longer PFS (Log-rank P<0.0001). The HRs (95% CI) for PFS comparing patients with different DepOR status were 0.58 (0.42-0.80) for Q2, 0.49 (0.35-0.69) for Q3, and 0.33 (0.22-0.50) for Q4, all compared with patients in Q1. DepOR as a continuous variable was also associated with prolonged PFS (HR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.13-0.33; P<0.001). Additionally, in the multivariable cox regression model, abnormal LDH, brain metastasis and male were found to be associated with worse PFS outcomes (P<0.05).
Conclusion: A greater DepOR is significantly associated with PFS benefit in advanced NSCLC treated with EGFR-TKI, suggesting that it may be a useful clinical outcome to evaluate the response of targeted therapy.
Keywords: DepOR, NSCLC, EGFR-TKI, targeted therapy