1. Department of Hematology, The Third Clinical Institute Affiliated to Wenzhou Medical University, People's Hospital of Wenzhou, Wenzhou, Zhejiang province, 325006, P.R. China
2. Department of Urology, Affiliated Hospital of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu province, 225001, P.R. China
3. Department of Anorectal surgery, sixth affiliated hospital of Wenzhou medical university (Lishui People's Hospital), Lishui, Zhejiang province, 323000, P.R. China
4. Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang province,325006, P.R. China
5. Department of Respiratory, Rui'an People's Hospital, The Third Affiliated Hospital of the Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang province, 325200, P.R. China
6. Department of Urology, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200433, P.R. China
*These authors (Aidan Xia, Yuming Chen, Jingfeng Chen) equally contributed to this manuscript.
Background: Few studies focused on the relationship between the albumin-to-alkaline phosphatase ratio (AAPR) and the urologic outcomes in patients with non-metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) following curative surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of preoperative AAPR in non-metastatic RCC patients.
Methods: The prognostic value of AAPR was evaluated in a primary cohort with 419 non-metastatic RCC patients following curative radical or partial nephrectomy and then further validated in an independent cohort consisting of 204 patients. A nomogram was developed based on the independent predictors, and its predictive value was assessed.
Results: Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated that patients with low AAPR levels were significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) compared with patients with high AAPR levels both in two cohorts. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that low AAPR was an independent risk factor for OS (HR = 2.745; 95%CI, 1.266-5.953; P = 0.011) and CSS (HR = 3.042; 95%CI, 1.278-7.243; P = 0.012). Moreover, subgroup analysis (Fuhrman grade G1+G2 and Fuhrman grade G3+G4; T1+T2 stage and T3+T4 stage) revealed that low AAPR was also related to worse urological outcomes. Although no significant differences between patients with low AAPR and patients with high AAPR can be observed with regard to CSS under Fuhrman grade G1+G2 (P=0.058) and T1+T2 stage (P=0.318), there was a worse CSS trend in low AAPR patients. The established nomograms for OS and CSS were well calibrated and had moderate discriminative ability (concordance index: 0.821 and 0.839, respectively)
Conclusions: Preoperative AAPR might be an independent prognostic factor in patients with non-metastatic RCC. The ratio should be applied in RCC patients for risk stratification and clinical decision-making.
Keywords: renal cell carcinoma, albumin-to-alkaline phosphatase ratio, prognosis, serum biomarker