J Cancer 2019; 10(25):6269-6277. doi:10.7150/jca.34859 This issue
1. Department of Urology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea
2. Cancer Research Institute, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea
Purpose: We examined the effect of GV1001 in castration castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cell growth and invasion and explored the potential molecular mechanisms of action.
Materials and Methods: The in vitro anti-cancer effects of GV1001 in CRPC cells were examined using cell viability assay, TUNEL assay, and flow cytometry analysis. To evaluate the effects of GV1001 on different steps of angiogenesis, wound healing assay, transwell invasion assay, endothelial cell tube formation assay, and western blot analysis were performed. Finally, the anti-cancer effects of GV1001 on tumor growth in vivo were examined in a CRPC xenograft model.
Results: GV1001 inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis in CRPC cells in vitro, accompanied by down-regulation of Bcl-2 and caspase-3. GV1001 also inhibited different steps of angiogenesis, such as migration, invasion, and endothelial tube formation, along with decreased expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, and CD31 and increased expression of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. Mechanistically, GV1001 significantly decreased the levels of phosphorylated AKT, phosphorylated p65, and VEGF in CRPC cells in a dose-dependent manner. GV1001 was effective in suppressing tumor growth and inducing apoptosis in a CRPC xenograft mouse model.
Conclusions: Our data demonstrated that GV1001 inhibited cell viability, induced apoptosis, and inhibited angiogenesis in CRPC cells by inhibition of the AKT/NF-κB/VEGF signaling pathway.
Keywords: castration-resistant prostate cancer, GV1001, AKT/NF-κB/VEGF signaling pathway