1. Department of Pathology, The First Affiliated Hospital and College of Basic Medical Sciences, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, China
2. Department of Gynecology, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, China
3. Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine; Scranton, PA18510, USA
Chronic infection of HPV16 E6/E7 is frequently associated with lung cancers, especially in non-smokers and in Asians. In our previous studies, we found that HPV16 E6/E7 up-regulated HIF-1α at protein level and further up-regulated GLUT1 at both protein and mRNA levels in well-established lung cancer cell lines. In one of our further mechanism study, the results demonstrated that HPV16 E6/E7 up-regulated the expression of GLUT1 through HPV-LKB1-HIF-1α-GLUT1 axis. However, there are multiple pathways involved in HPV16 E6/E7 regulation of HIF-1α expression. In current study, using double directional genetic manipulation in well-established lung cancer cell lines, we showed that both E6 and E7 down-regulated the expression of RRAD at both protein and mRNA levels. Like LKB1, RRAD is one of the cancer suppressor genes. The loss of RRAD further activated NF-κB by promoted cytoplasmic p65 translocated to nucleus, and up-regulated the expression level of the p-p65 in nucleus. Furthermore, p-p65 up regulated HIF-1α and GLUT1 at both protein and mRNA levels. Thus, we proposed HPV16 E6/E7 up-regulated the expression of GLUT1 through HPV-RRAD-p65- HIF-1α- GLUT1 axis. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time that E6 and E7 promoted the expression of HIF-1α and GLUT1 by relieving the inhibitory effect of RRAD which resulted in the activation of NF-κB by promoting cytoplasmic p65 translocated to nucleus, and up-regulated the expression of the p-p65 in nucleus in lung cancer cells. Our findings provided new evidence to support the critical role of RRAD in the pathogenesis of HPV-related lung cancer, and suggested novel therapeutic targets.
Keywords: Human papillomavirus (HPV), Ras-related associated with diabetes (RRAD), NF-κB, Hypoxia- inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1)