J Cancer 2020; 11(6):1516-1524. doi:10.7150/jca.36997

Research Paper

Prognostic Nomogram and Predictive Factors in Refractory or Relapsed Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Patients Failing Front-Line R-CHOP Regimens

Shiyu Jiang, Yan Qin, Peng Liu, Jianliang Yang, Sheng Yang, Xiaohui He, Shengyu Zhou, Lin Gui, Changgong Zhang, Liqiang Zhou, Yan Sun, Yuankai Shi

Department of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing Key Laboratory of Clinical Study on Anticancer Molecular Targeted Drugs, Beijing, 100021, China.

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Citation:
Jiang S, Qin Y, Liu P, Yang J, Yang S, He X, Zhou S, Gui L, Zhang C, Zhou L, Sun Y, Shi Y. Prognostic Nomogram and Predictive Factors in Refractory or Relapsed Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Patients Failing Front-Line R-CHOP Regimens. J Cancer 2020; 11(6):1516-1524. doi:10.7150/jca.36997. Available from https://www.jcancer.org/v11p1516.htm

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Abstract

Background: The clinical course of relapsed or refractory (r/r) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is variable, with limited efficacy data of second-line treatment in a post-rituximab real-world context. Hence, we explored the predictors and constructed a nomogram for risk stratification in this population.

Patients and methods: Among 296 r/r DLBCL patients pretreated with R-CHOP (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) at the Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College between 2006 and 2017, 231 were included for nomogram construction. After randomization, we constructed the prognostic nomogram in the primary cohort (n=161) based on a multivariate analysis and confirmed it in the validation cohort (n=70). Additionally, we explored predictive factors for second-line therapy using a ordinal regression analysis.

Results: Four independent prognostic factors including rituximab in the second-line setting, initial Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS), response to front-line treatment, and invasion on progression/recurrence were used to construct the nomogram. The nomogram had a C index of 0.70 with AUC values of 0.73 and 0.71 for the primary and validation cohorts, respectively. Subsequently, three risk groups (low, intermediate, and high) were determined with median overall survival (OS) of 38.0, 25.0, and 7.0 months, respectively. Additionally, we conducted a multivariate ordinal regression analysis and identified prior response to front-line treatment (odds ratio=4.50, 95% CI: 1.84-11.27, p=0.001) and bulky disease at diagnosis (odds ratio=0.36, 95% CI: 0.182-0.702, p=0.003) were two independent factors for second-line treatment efficacy.

Conclusions: The established predictors for treatment efficacy and the novel nomogram for survival in r/r DLBCL patients could potentially be applied for risk stratification and treatment guidance in the post-rituximab era.

Keywords: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, overall survival, nomogram, efficacy