J Cancer 2020; 11(10):2730-2736. doi:10.7150/jca.36238 This issue
Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Jiangxi Province Ocular Disease Clinical Research Center, Nanchang 330006, Jiangxi, People's Republic of China
*These authors have contributed equally to this work.
Despite recent improvements in diagnosis and therapy, lung cancer remains the most common malignant tumor in males, with high morbidity and mortality. As the annual incidence continues to increase worldwide, the prognosis for male patients with lung cancer remains unsatisfactory. Interestingly, smoking is associated with lung cancer and ocular lesions by altering risk factors such as carbohydrate antigen (CA)-125, CA-153 and cytokeratin-19 fragment (CYFRA21-1). A diagnostic standard for serum biomarker levels of ocular metastasis (OM) in males with lung cancer is therefore urgently needed. In this retrospective analysis, we examined the relationship between smoking preference and OM in male patients with lung cancer to identify an independent prognostic factor or establish a quantitative indicated standard for OM using the clinical indexes from 2238 cases of male lung cancer. The combination of CA-125, CA-153 and CYFRA21-1 could help diagnose OM in male lung cancer patients. This finding might lead to more timely diagnosis and effective therapies.
Keywords: ocular metastasis, lung cancer, men, potential indicators, risk factors, smoking preference