J Cancer 2020; 11(11):3407-3415. doi:10.7150/jca.40196 This issue

Research Paper

Sex Differences and Adverse Effects between Chemotherapy and Immunotherapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Theodora Tsiouda1, Chrisanthi Sardeli2, Konstantinos Porpodis3, Maria Pilikidou1, Georgios Apostolidis1, Krystallia Kyrka1, Angeliki Miziou1, Konstantina Arvaniti1, Zoi Tsingerlioti1, Souzana Papadopoulou12, Anta Heva1, Charilaos Koulouris4, Dimitrios Giannakidis4, Konstantina Boniou4, Isaak Kesisoglou4, Anastasios Vagionas4, Christoforos Kosmidis4, Christina Sevva4, George Papazisis2, Alexandru Marian Goganau5, Konstantinos Sapalidis4, Kosmas Tsakiridis6, Stavros Tryfon7, Michalis Platanas8, Sofia Baka9, Bojan Zaric10, Branislav Perin10, Savvas Petanidis11, Paul Zarogoulidis4✉

1. Pulmonary Department, “Theageneio” Cancer Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece.
2. Department of Pharmacology & Clinical Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.
3. Pulmonary Department, G. “Papanikolaou” General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.
4. 3rd Department of Surgery, “AHEPA” University Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Medical School, Thessaloniki, Greece.
5. General Surgery Clinic 1, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Craiova County Emergency Hospital, Craiova, Romania.
6. Thoracic Surgery Department, “Interbalkan” European Medical Center, Thessaloniki, Greece.
7. Pulmonary Department (NHS), G.H. “G. Papanikolaou” Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.
8. Urology Department (NHS), General Hospital of Giannitsa, Giannitsa, Greece.
9. Oncology Department, “Interbalkan” European Medical Center, Thessaloniki, Greece.
10. Institute for Pulmonary Diseases of Vojvodina, Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad, Serbia.
11. Department of Pulmonology, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russian Federation.
12. Department of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, International Hellenic University, Thessaloniki, Greece.

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Tsiouda T, Sardeli C, Porpodis K, Pilikidou M, Apostolidis G, Kyrka K, Miziou A, Arvaniti K, Tsingerlioti Z, Papadopoulou S, Heva A, Koulouris C, Giannakidis D, Boniou K, Kesisoglou I, Vagionas A, Kosmidis C, Sevva C, Papazisis G, Goganau AM, Sapalidis K, Tsakiridis K, Tryfon S, Platanas M, Baka S, Zaric B, Perin B, Petanidis S, Zarogoulidis P. Sex Differences and Adverse Effects between Chemotherapy and Immunotherapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. J Cancer 2020; 11(11):3407-3415. doi:10.7150/jca.40196. Available from https://www.jcancer.org/v11p3407.htm

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Introduction: Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women and around the world. Approximately 90% of cases of lung cancer are caused by smoking and the use of tobacco products. However, other factors such as asbestos, air pollution and chronic infections can contribute to pulmonary carcinogenesis. Lung cancer is divided into two broad histological categories, which develop and spread different small cell lung carcinomas and non-small cell lung carcinomas. The treatment options for lung cancer include surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and targeted treatments. Tumor induced immune suppression is vital for malignant progression. Immunotherapies act by strengthening the patient's innate tendency for an immune response and give positive promise to patients with non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are a new approach to cancer therapies. Just as immune therapies include a new approach to cancer biology, the toxicities associated with these factors have created new challenges in clinical practice.

Materials & Methods: Patients (218) aged 40-80 years were treated with either chemotherapy or immunotherapy. Their response to treatment and any subsequent adverse drug reactions were studied.

Results: 69% of patients were treated with chemotherapy and 31% were treated with immunotherapy. The type of treatment had a statistically significant effect on the undesirable effects of the treatment.

Conclusions: The type of treatment was statistically significant in responding to the treatment and treatment side effects but not in the rate of death.

Keywords: Lung cancer, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, adverse effects