J Cancer 2020; 11(16):4700-4708. doi:10.7150/jca.45382 This issue
1. Department of Nephrology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100050, China.
2. National Cancer Center/ National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/ Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100021, China.
With rapid progress in cancer diagnosis and treatment in the last two decades, outcomes in oncological patients have improved significantly. However, the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in this population has also increased significantly. AKI complicates many aspects of patients' care and adversely affects their prognoses; thus, accurately diagnosing the risk factors for AKI ensures appropriate management. AKI may be caused by pre-renal, intrinsic renal, and post-renal reasons, as well as for combined reasons. This review summarizes the potential etiologies of AKI according to the three classifications. For each underlying cause of AKI, the cancer itself and/or cancer treatment may contribute to a patient developing AKI. Therefore, we present disease- and treatment-related factors for each cause category, with special focus on immune checkpoint inhibitors, which are being used increasingly more often. It is important for nephrology services to be knowledgeable to provide the best level of care.
Keywords: oncology, renal injury, etiology, pathophysiology, treatment