J Cancer 2020; 11(16):4810-4822. doi:10.7150/jca.45304 This issue

Research Paper

Borneol promotes apoptosis of Human Glioma Cells through regulating HIF-1a expression via mTORC1/eIF4E pathway

Zeng Wang1#, Qinglin Li1#, Liang Xia2, Xia Li3, Caixing Sun2, Qiong Wang1, Xinjun Cai4✉, Guonong Yang1✉

1. Pharmacy Department, Institute of Cancer and Basic Medicine (ICBM), Chinese Academy of Sciences; Cancer Hospital of the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences; Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou 310022, People's Republic of China.
2. Neurotumor surgery department, Institute of Cancer and Basic Medicine (ICBM), Chinese Academy of Sciences; Cancer Hospital of the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences; Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou 310022, People's Republic of China.
3. Cancer Institute department, Institute of Cancer and Basic Medicine (ICBM), Chinese Academy of Sciences; Cancer Hospital of the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences; Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou 310022, People's Republic of China.
4. Department of pharmacy, ZheJiang Chinese Medicine and Western Medicine Integrated Hospital, 310003, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, P. R. China.
#Co-first authors.

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Citation:
Wang Z, Li Q, Xia L, Li X, Sun C, Wang Q, Cai X, Yang G. Borneol promotes apoptosis of Human Glioma Cells through regulating HIF-1a expression via mTORC1/eIF4E pathway. J Cancer 2020; 11(16):4810-4822. doi:10.7150/jca.45304. Available from https://www.jcancer.org/v11p4810.htm

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Abstract

The main reason for the failure of malignant glioma treatment is local tumor recurrence. Tumor cells in hypoxic microenvironment activate HIF-1 α transcription, and thus promoting tumor invasion and metastasis is one of the important reasons. In our previous study, we clearly established that borneol opens the blood-brain tumor barrier and its related mechanism. However, the effects of borneol itself on glioma proliferation have not yet been elucidated. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the effect of borneol on glioma by constructing in vivo SD rat brain glioma model and in vitro human primary cultured glioma cell model. We found that borneol could suppress the proliferation of primary glioma cells and the tumor volume of SD rat brain glioma. Further, we measured the apoptosis effect induced by borneol in human primary cultured glioma cells. The results showed that the higher the concentration of borneol, the higher the apoptosis rate of human primary cultured glioma cells, but the effect was reversed after transfection of HIF-1 overexpression plasmid; In addition, borneol could downregulate the expression of Bcl-2 and upregulation the expression of Bax and caspase-3, similarly, the effect was also reversed after transfection of HIF-1 overexpression plasmid, suggesting that the apoptosis effect induced by borneol in human primary cultured glioma cells is mediated via HIF-1α. Moreover, the bioinformatics analysis of correlation between HIF-1α and apoptosis-related factors based on CGGA database showed that there was a positive correlation between the expression of eIF4E and HIF-1 α (P < 0.05), and in patients with high expression of eIF4E and HIF-1α had poor survival and prognosis (P<0.001). It was further discovered that in the human primary cultured glioma cells borneol regulated HIF-1a expression via mTORC1/eIF4E pathway. In conclusion, the findings of the present study suggest that HIF-1α may be a key factor in borneol induced apoptosis of glioma cells, and mTORC1 / eIF4E pathway is involved in the HIF-1α regulation by borneol in malignant glioma. Our results not only reveal the target and molecular mechanism and action of borneol leading to promote apoptosis in glioma cells, but also provide experimental basis and theoretical support for the clinical application of borneol.

Keywords: malignant glioma, borneol, HIF-1a, apoptosis