J Cancer 2020; 11(23):6902-6915. doi:10.7150/jca.49532 This issue

Review

Application and development of aptamer in cancer: from clinical diagnosis to cancer therapy

Jing Han2#, Liang Gao3#, Jinsheng Wang4✉, Jia Wang1✉

1. Department of Immunology, Changzhi Medical College, Changzhi, Shanxi, 046000 China.
2. Department of Reproductive Medicine, Heping Hospital Affiliated to Changzhi Medical College, Changzhi, Shanxi, 046000 China.
3. Department of Dermatology, Heji Hospital Affiliated to Changzhi Medical College, Changzhi, Shanxi, 046000 China.
4. Department of Pathology, Changzhi Medical College, Changzhi, Shanxi, 046000 China.
#These authors contributed equally to this study.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). See http://ivyspring.com/terms for full terms and conditions.
Citation:
Han J, Gao L, Wang J, Wang J. Application and development of aptamer in cancer: from clinical diagnosis to cancer therapy. J Cancer 2020; 11(23):6902-6915. doi:10.7150/jca.49532. Available from https://www.jcancer.org/v11p6902.htm

File import instruction

Abstract

Graphic abstract

Traditional anticancer therapies can cause serious side effects in clinical treatment due to their nonspecific of tumor cells. Aptamers, also termed as 'chemical antibodies', are short DNA or RNA oligonucleotides selected from the synthetic large random single-strand oligonucleotide library by systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) to bind to lots of different targets, such as proteins or nucleic acid structures. Aptamers have good affinities and high specificity with target molecules, thus may be able to act as drugs themselves to directly inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells, or own great potentialities in the targeted drug delivery systems which can be used in tumor diagnosis and target specific tumor cells, thereby minimizing the toxicity to normal cells. Here we review the unique properties of aptamer represents a great opportunity when applied to the rapidly developing fields of biotechnology and discuss the recent developments in the use of aptamers as powerful tools for analytic, diagnostic and therapeutic applications for cancer.

Keywords: aptamers, cancer, cancer diagnosis, targeted therapy, drug delivery