J Cancer 2020; 11(23):7023-7031. doi:10.7150/jca.48322 This issue
1. Cancer System Biology Center, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin Province, China.
2. Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin Province, China.
3. Department of Hand and Foot Surgery, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin Province, China.
Objective: To investigate the association between serum lipid levels in patients with primary non-small cell lung cancer and the risk of developing metastases, a retrospective cohort-based nested case-control study was conducted.
Material and method: Patients with primary non-small cell lung cancer admitted to the First and the Third Hospitals of Jilin University from January 2008 through December 2015 were recruited retrospectively based on their electronic medical records. A total of 524 patients were initially considered, consisting of 138 in the case group and 386 as control. Out of these, 110 were finally included in the case group and 110 as control based on additional selection criteria. The following information is collected from all the patients, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG). Logistic regressions were conducted to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients to have metastasis risk when having elevated serum lipid levels. Restricted cubic spline (RCS) curves were used to demonstrate the association between serum lipid levels and the risk of metastasis.
Results: Patients with high TC level (P = 0.025, 0R = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.03-1.74) and patients with high LDL-C level (Q4: > 3.47 vs Q1: ≤2.54, P = 0.002, OR = 3.92, 95% CI: 1.31-11.77) are found to have an increased metastasis risk; and their dose-response relationship was validated by our restricted cubic spline analysis (TC: P overall association=0.02, P non-linear association = 0.73; LDL-C: P overall association=0.02, P non-linear association = 0.10). These associations were statistically significant, particularly in men who smoked, never drank, and were 65 years of age or younger. In addition, patients with simultaneously high levels of TC and LDL-C have a 60% increased risk of metastasis compared with patients with high levels of TC and normal LDL-C.
Conclusion: Dyslipidemia may be a risk factor for metastasis among NSCLC patients. Examination of serum lipid level on a regular basis can provide early signal of metastasis for NSCLC patients.
Keywords: Non-small cell lung cancer, serum lipids, cholesterol, metastasis, nested case-control study