J Cancer 2021; 12(14):4307-4321. doi:10.7150/jca.54637

Review

Impact of cholesterol-pathways on breast cancer development, a metabolic landscape

Alina González-Ortiz#, Octavio Galindo-Hernández, Gerson N. Hernández-Acevedo, Gustavo Hurtado-Ureta, Victor García-González

Departamento de Bioquímica, Facultad de Medicina Mexicali, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, 21000 Mexicali, México.
#Medical degree student.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). See http://ivyspring.com/terms for full terms and conditions.
Citation:
González-Ortiz A, Galindo-Hernández O, Hernández-Acevedo GN, Hurtado-Ureta G, García-González V. Impact of cholesterol-pathways on breast cancer development, a metabolic landscape. J Cancer 2021; 12(14):4307-4321. doi:10.7150/jca.54637. Available from https://www.jcancer.org/v12p4307.htm

File import instruction

Abstract

ApoB-lipoproteins and their components modulate intracellular metabolism and have been associated with the development of neoplastic phenomena, such as proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and cancer invasion. In cancer cells, the modulation of targets that regulate cholesterol metabolism, such as synthesis de novo, endocytosis, and oxidation, are contributing factors to cancer development. While mechanisms associated with sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP-2)/mevalonate, the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) and liver X receptor (LXR) have been linked with tumor growth; metabolites derived from cholesterol-oxidation, such as oxysterols and epoxy-cholesterols, also have been described as tumor processes-inducers. From this notion, we perform an analysis of the role of lipoproteins, their association with intracellular cholesterol metabolism, and the impact of these conditions on breast cancer development, mechanisms that can be shared during atherogenesis promoted mainly by LDL. Pathways connecting plasma dyslipidemias in conjunction with the effect of cholesterol-derived metabolites on intracellular mechanisms and cellular plasticity phenomena could provide new approaches to elucidate the triggering factors of carcinogenesis, conditions that could be considered in the development of new therapeutic approaches.

Keywords: breast cancer, plasmatic lipoproteins, SREBP-2/mevalonate pathway, oxysterols, epoxy-cholesterols