J Cancer 2021; 12(18):5530-5542. doi:10.7150/jca.52648 This issue

Research Paper

High Expression of RhoF Predicts Worse Overall Survival: A Potential Therapeutic Target for non-M3 Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Yue Hou, Jie Zi, Zheng Ge

Department of Hematology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School of Southeast University, Institute of Hematology Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, China

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Hou Y, Zi J, Ge Z. High Expression of RhoF Predicts Worse Overall Survival: A Potential Therapeutic Target for non-M3 Acute Myeloid Leukemia. J Cancer 2021; 12(18):5530-5542. doi:10.7150/jca.52648. Available from https://www.jcancer.org/v12p5530.htm

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Graphic abstract

Rho GTPases are involved in multiple human malignancies and diverse biological functions. However, the patterns and prognostic significance of the expression of RhoD subfamily in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remain unknown. Here, we detected the expressions of RhoD subfamily genes in AML on the basis of several published datasets and analyzed the survival of RhoD subfamily across the TCGA profiles and in a GEO series. We found that the expression of RhoF, but not RhoD, increased in AML patients in TCGA and GEO (all P<0.001); the survival analysis of two independent cohorts demonstrated that higher RhoF expression was significantly associated with poorer overall survival (OS) (P<0.001), whereas RhoD expression had no significant effect on OS in patients with AML (P>0.05); the subgroup analysis showed that high RhoF expression was correlated with poor 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS (P<0.05 for all); upregulated RhoF expression had a more significant prognostic value for OS in the younger patients (age<60), the intensive chemotherapy group, and wild-type groups (IDH1, NRAS, and TP53) (P<0.05 for all). Multivariate analysis indicated high RhoF expression as a strongly independent unfavorable prognostic factor for OS in patients without transplantation (P<0.05). Furthermore, a higher RhoF expression was closely associated with an older age, intermediate-/poor-risk cytogenetics and mutations in IDH1, NRAS, and TP53. RhoF expression was negatively correlated with BM blasts (P=0.020) and WBC (P=0.003). These findings suggest that high RhoF expression is associated with worsening OS in AML patients and is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of AML.

Keywords: RhoF, acute myeloid leukemia, survival, clinical feature, therapeutic target