1. Department of Urology, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.
2. Institute of Urology, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.
#These authors equally contributed to this work and should be regarded as co-first authors.
Background: Both nutritional status and coagulation function are closely associated with prognosis in patients with bladder cancer (BC). This study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of albumin-to-fibrinogen ratio (AFR) for BC patients underwent radical cystectomy (RC) or transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT), and develop predictive nomograms based on AFR.
Methods: We retrospectively collected medical records of 358 BC patients who underwent RC or TURBT between January 2012 and December 2018. The whole cohort was divided into the training (215 patients, 60.06%) and validation cohorts (143 patients, 39.94%) based on surgery dates. The training cohort was applied to select characteristics and construct nomograms, while the validation cohort was used to verify the nomograms independently. Endpoints of the current study included overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Prognostic values of AFR and other characteristics were evaluated using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses and compared using the concordance-index (C-index). Nomograms for OS, DSS and DFS were constructed based on both-directional stepwise Cox proportional hazards regression analysis and evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the C-index and calibration plot.
Results: In whole cohort, 86 patients (24.02%) were classified into low AFR group and had worse OS (hazard ratio [HR]: 4.079, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.085-7.982, P < 0.001), DSS (HR: 3.012, 95% CI: 1.302-6.966, P = 0.010) and DFS (HR: 1.863, 95% CI: 1.204-2.883, P = 0.005) compared to BC patients in high AFR group. Meanwhile, the AFR processed better prognostic power than albumin and fibrinogen, individually. Multivariate Cox analysis indicated that AFR was an independent prognostic factor for OS (HR: 2.601, 95% CI: 1.057-6.395, P = 0.037) and DFS (HR: 1.971, 95% CI: 1.049-3.703, P = 0.035). Novel nomograms, incorporating AFR, tumor grade and tumor multifocality, were constructed and successfully validated for predictions of OS, DSS and DFS in BC.
Conclusions: Preoperative AFR was identified as an independent prognostic predictor for OS and DFS of BC patients underwent surgery. The nomograms incorporating AFR provided accurate predictions for OS, DSS and DFS, which could help urologists in better clinical decision-making.
Keywords: bladder cancer, albumin-to-fibrinogen ratio, nutrition, biomarker, prognosis, nomogram