J Cancer 2021; 12(20):6254-6264. doi:10.7150/jca.59273 This issue
1. Department of obstetrics and gynecology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China
2. Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02215, USA
# These authors contributed equally to this work
Background: The x-ray repair cross-complementing (XRCC) family is essential in DNA repair processes. The predictive roles of XRCCs remain unclear in ovarian carcinomas. Therefore, detecting the relationship between XRCCs expression and ovarian carcinomas prognosis is increasingly pivotal.
Methods: Using the “Kaplan-Meier (KM) plotter” database, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were utilized to evaluate the prognosis of XRCCs mRNA expression in ovarian carcinoma patients with clinical outcomes. Then, mRNA level and protein levels of XRCCs were assessed in normal ovarian cells and ovarian carcinoma cell lines by real-time qPCR, Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis. Additionally, expression of the XRCCs protein in tissues from ovarian carcinomas and normal ovary was identified by immunohistochemical staining.
Results: Higher mRNA levels of XRCC2 and XRCC9 predicted longer PFS and OS in all women with ovarian malignance, while elevated XRCC4 mRNA levels were linked to poor PFS and OS in all ovarian cancer patients. Elevated mRNA of XRCC2 was also correlated with better PFS in patients with serous ovarian carcinomas, and better PFS and OS in grade III and stage III+IV ovarian carcinomas patients. What's more, highly expressed levels of XRCC9 mRNA were also linked to favorable PFS and OS in patients with serous, grade III and stage III+IV ovarian carcinomas. Nevertheless, elevated mRNA expression of XRCC4 was linked to worse PFS and OS for patients with serous, grade III as well as all stages of ovarian malignance. Additionally, when compared to ovarian carcinoma cell lines, elevated mRNA and protein levels of XRCC2 and XRCC9 were detected in normal ovarian cells. Consistently, higher staining of XRCC2 and XRCC9 was also detected in normal ovarian cells than that in ovarian cancer cells. Then, higher staining levels of XRCC2 and XRCC9 were discovered in healthy control tissues than that in ovarian carcinoma tissues. Meanwhile, XRCC4 was identified to be overexpressed in tissues of ovarian malignance as compared to normal control tissues. However, XRCC4 mRNA and protein levels were lower in ovarian cancer cells than that in normal cell line.
Conclusion: Elevated XRCC2 and XRCC9 expression levels were observed in normal ovarian cells and tissues than that in ovarian malignance cells and tissues, and exhibited better prognostic value especially in patients with serous, poor differentiated and late stage, suggesting that XRCC2 and XRCC9 may be potent prognostic markers in ovarian cancer patients and can guide personalized surveillance for ovarian malignance.
Keywords: XRCC2, XRCC4, XRCC9, Ovarian carcinomas, Prognosis