J Cancer 2022; 13(2):373-384. doi:10.7150/jca.65511 This issue
Medical Proteomics Unit, Office for Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700, Thailand.
Loss of ARID1A, a tumor suppressor gene, is associated with the higher grade of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the progression and aggressiveness of CRC induced by the loss of ARID1A remain poorly understood. Herein, we evaluated cellular mechanisms underlying the effects of ARID1A knockdown on the carcinogenesis features and aggressiveness of CRC cells. A human CRC cell line (Caco-2) was transfected with small interfering RNA (siRNA) specific to ARID1A (siARID1A) or scrambled (non-specific) siRNA (siControl). Cell death, proliferation, senescence, chemoresistance and invasion were then evaluated. In addition, formation of polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCCs), self-aggregation (multicellular spheroid) and secretion of an angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), were examined. The results showed that ARID1A knockdown led to significant decreases in cell death and senescence. On the other hand, ARID1A knockdown enhanced cell proliferation, chemoresistance and invasion. The siARID1A-transfected cells also had greater number of PGCCs and larger spheroid size and secreted greater level of VEGF compared with the siControl-transfected cells. These data, at least in part, explain the cellular mechanisms of ARID1A deficiency in carcinogenesis and aggressiveness features of CRC.
Keywords: Chemoresistance, Colorectal cancer, Invasion, Proliferation, Spheroid, VEGF