J Cancer 2022; 13(9):2775-2780. doi:10.7150/jca.73898 This issue

Research Paper

Impact of carbonic anhydrase 9 gene polymorphism on the progression of colorectal cancer

Hsien-Cheng Huang1,2#, Bei-Hao Shiu1,3,4#, Yasser Nassef1, Chi-Chou Huang3,4, Ying-Erh Chou4, Wen-Chien Ting3,4, Lun-Ching Chang5, Jian-Cheng Lin1,6, Li-Kai Hsiao7, Shun-Fa Yang1,6✉, Shih-Chi Su8,9✉

1. Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.
2. Department of Emergency Medicine, Kuang Tien General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.
3. Department of Surgery, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.
4. School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.
5. Department of Mathematical Sciences, Florida Atlantic University, Florida, USA.
6. Department of Medical Research, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.
7. MingDao High School, Taichung, Taiwan.
8. Whole-Genome Research Core Laboratory of Human Diseases, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan.
9. Department of Dermatology, Drug Hypersensitivity Clinical and Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan.
#Equal contributions as co-first authors.

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Citation:
Huang HC, Shiu BH, Nassef Y, Huang CC, Chou YE, Ting WC, Chang LC, Lin JC, Hsiao LK, Yang SF, Su SC. Impact of carbonic anhydrase 9 gene polymorphism on the progression of colorectal cancer. J Cancer 2022; 13(9):2775-2780. doi:10.7150/jca.73898. Available from https://www.jcancer.org/v13p2775.htm

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Abstract

Graphic abstract

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a commonly occurring tumor type worldwide, and its development is governed by a connection between genetic variations and acquired factors. Carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) is a cell-surface pH modulator that has been demonstrated to contribute to key steps of cancer progression. Here, we attempted to interrogate the effect of CA9 gene polymorphisms on the development of CRC in 470 cases and 470 gender- and age-matched non-cancer controls. We found that none of three CA9 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tested, including rs2071676, rs3829078, and rs1048638, was significantly associated with the occurrence of CRC. Yet, while evaluating the clinicopathological variables, cases carrying at least one reference allele (G allele) of rs2071676 tended to develop poorly differentiated tumors less frequently than those who are homozygous for the alternative allele (A allele) of rs2071676 (GA+GG vs AA; OR, 0.483; 95% CI, 0.242-0.963; p=0.036). Further stratification revealed that as compared to homozygous carriers of the alternative allele (AA), cases of colon cancer bearing at least one reference allele of rs2071676 (GA+GG) less frequently developed poorly differentiated tumors (OR, 0.449; 95% CI, 0.221-0.911; p=0.024) and lymphovascular invasion (OR, 0.570; 95% CI, 0.361-0.900; p=0.015). Such genetic effect was exclusively observed in colon cancer but not in rectal cancer. Our results indicate an anatomical site-specific impact of CA9 gene polymorphisms on modulating the progression of colorectal malignancies.

Keywords: Colorectal cancer, carbonic anhydrase 9, single-nucleotide polymorphism, tumor differentiation