1. Department of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy
2. Epidemiology and Biostatistics Unit, AUSL Teramo, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy.
3. Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy
The growing interest in enhancing and spreading colorectal cancer (CRC) screening has been stimulating the exploration of novel biomarkers with greater sensitivity and specificity than immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT). The present study provides i) a systematic review of the urinary biomarkers that have been tested to achieve early CRC diagnosis and assess the risk of colorectal adenoma and adenocarcinoma, and ii) a meta-analysis of the data regarding the urinary prostaglandin (PG) metabolite PGE-M.
As regard to gene markers, we found significantly different percent methylation of the vimentin gene in CRC patients and healthy controls (HC) (p<0.0001). Respect to metabolism of nitrogenous bases, cytidine, 1-methyladenosine, and adenosine, have higher concentrations in CRC patients than in HC (respectively, p<0.01, p=0.01, and p<0.01). As regard to spermine we found that N1,N12 diacetyl spermine (DiAcSpm) and N1, N8 diacetylspermidine (DiAcSpd) were significantly higher in CRC than in HC (respectively p=0.01 and p<0.01). Respect to PGE-M, levels were higher in CRC than in those with multiple polyposis (p<0.006) and HC subjects (p<0.0004). PGE-M seems to be the most interesting and promising urinary marker for CRC and adenoma risk assessment and for CRC screening.
In conclusion, evidence suggests that urinary biomarker could have a potential role as urinary biomarkers in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer. Particularly, PGE-M seems to be the most promising urinary marker for CRC early detection.
Keywords: Colorectal adenoma and cancer, early detection, urinary biomarkers, prostaglandins, meta-analysis